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Volume 3, Number I 

March 1989 USA $14. 95 • Canada $19. 95 


SI CAD and 



m mm 


Assembly L 




Dot Matrix Owners! 

This ad done on a dot matrix 

'"Phis ad was produced entirely with PageStream and a 
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singie drive 520ST! 

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formerly Publishing Partner Professional. 

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ut how many people you know own a Postscript 
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'"That's great! PageStream was designed with dot 

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The latest multi-player multi- 
format PC game from Australia is 
different to all forms of Poker. 

Aussie JOKER POKER features 
90 player capacity, open-ended discard 
ability, selectable deck size and hands per 
player, password controlled gambling system 
with automatic accounts - and 5 free entry 
forms for the $200,000 Aussie JOKER 
POKER Contest. 

Each month December 1988 through 
April 1989 winners of 240 JOKER 
SOFTWARE games and 4 finalists will be 
randomly drawn from all entries received 
that month. 

With a guest, the 20 Finalists will be 
flown to Las Vegas to play Aussie JOKER 
POKER for a first prize of $100,000 In 
cash at the Golden Nugget. 

1,220 Prizes Value $200,000 

1,200 Joker PC software games 

at $29.95 to $49.95 dependent 

on disk format. Game prizes 

at sole discretion of sponsor. $60,000 

Cash Prizes for 
Contest Grand Final: 

Highest Scorer: 

Second Highest Scorer: 

Third Highest Scorer: 

Lowest Scorer: 

16 Consolation Prizes of $1,000 

each to eliminated Finalists 



Aussie JOKER POKER is 
available for SIX major PC's 

If your PC has a mouse or keyboard, a mono 
or color monitor and a 512K minimum ram 
(except Apple II and C64/128 use 64K and 
keyboard only) you and your family can 
practise at home for the Las Vegas final of 
the Aussie JOKER POKER contest. 

Suggested retail prices: 

$2,500 IBM & compatibles 

$1 500 ( CGA Board required) $39.95 

Amiga & Atari ST $49.95 

$16 ooo Macintosh (mono only) $49.95 

Apple II $39.95 

C64/128 $29.95 

$15,000 , (0 ,rt„|„ HI 

Aussie JOKER POKER Contest Rules 

entry forms and full contest rules are included w 
"Aussie Joker Poker" or maybe obtained by sens 

a stamped self-addressed envelope larger than 
5Vs" • 7Vj" with a hand written request to: AliSSit 
Joker Poker Contest Entry Forms, P.O. Box 22381, 
Gilroy, CA 95021-2381. Mail-in requests limited to 
one per name, household or family and must be 
received no later th.iri 3/31.'89. WA & VT residents 
need not include return postage. Full rules also 
available from priridpiitini; .VI i nci'scape retailers. 

5. Monthly entries must be received no later than the 
last day of the month in which a drawing will take 
place in order to participate In the month S-drawlRg 
Drawings will be hold 'ryn Duuomber, 1988 
through April 1989, Inclusive, Final entries must be 
received by 4/30/89. 

6. Contest open to legal residents of the U.S.A. and 
Canada (other than Quebec), 

,'. Odds 'j I wir'-irni duijend on mi rib or ■:;■■ ol .".il.ilo 
entries received. 


8. Contest subject tocompletooffici 


o, it not available o,de, direct on 

1 800-24-JOKER 

24 hour order service 

RETAILERS CALL: 1-800-221-9884 

Mark Williams Raises 
C Programming Tb A New Level. 

New source level debugger, csd, 
cuts development time 
in half! 



an ST 


Mark Williams C For Ihe Atari ST 

* New! Resource Editor includes compiler/ 

decompiler lor direct access lo 
resource text 

* New! Peeptiole optimization-faster com- 

pile times and faster code 
> Full access to AES/VDI libraries 
with complete documentation 
and examples 

• Source and object coiis \r.: RMS. 
disk culs compile time in half 

• Integrated edit/compile cycle: 
editor automatically points to 

• MicroEMACS full-screen editor 
with commented source code 

• Full K & R plus ANSI extensions 

• Mic r r;:;Mell Command Processor, 
a powerful UNIX style shell 

• Complete symbolic debugger 
and assembler 


• Powerful utilities: make, ^^"J/, 
linker, archiver. egrep, sort, 
diff and more 

■ Over GOO pages of documentation 
with more than 100 sample 


■ Cuts development time in half! 

• Debug in C source code not 

■ Provides separate source, evalua- 
tion, program and history '.'Miricws 

• Ability to set trace points and 
monitor variables 

• Can interactively evaluate any C 

■ Can execute any C function in your 

• Trace back function 

• On-line help screens 


Now, on top of the 
world's best C compiler, 
Mark Williams brings you 
csd, the world's only 
source level debugger for 
the Atari ST! 

With csd, you actually 
debug in C. Forget about 
trying to find bugs in clunky 
assembler and struggling 
with long dumps, csd gives 
you the interactive advan- 
tages of an interpreter plus 
the speed of a compiler. An 
indispensable companion for Mark Williams C. 

Reviewers have been raving about the IBM version 
of csd for years: 

"csd is close to the ideal debugging environment... a 
definite aid to learning C and an indispensable tool for pro- 
gram development" -Wffiam G. Wong, fiTTS 

"This is a powerful and sophisticated debugger built on 
a well-designed, 'serious 7 compiler." 

-Jonathan Sachs, Micro/Systems fournal 


Atari M 

Our new Resource Editor 

makes creating window 
driven interfaces with icons, 
alerts, pull down menus and 
dialogue boxes a snap. And its 
exclusive compiler/decompiler 
lets you directly access 
resources, making changes 
quick and easy while simplifying proj ect management. 
Unparalleled compiler speed, fast, compact code, 
complete utilities and outstanding documentation 
have made Mark Williams C the preferred compiler 
for the Atari ST. Reviewers enthusiastically agree: 
"Mark Williams C may be the best implementation ofC 
on the Atari ST to date. . . not only for the experienced, profes- 
sional developer, but also for the weekend programmer." 
-George Miller, COMPUTE! "S Atari ST Disk and Magazine 

". . . the all-around best choice for serious software 
development on the ST" 

-Douglas Weir, Analog Computing 


Mark Williams has been producing and improving 
quality programming tools since 1976. A good reason 
why the Mark Williams C compiler is the one chosen by 
Atari. And just one more reason you should choose Mark 
Williams, too. 


If you already own Mark Williams C, a special 
update offer is available for version 3.0 and csd by calling 
Mark Williams. If not, there's never been a better time 
to ask your Atari dealer about Mark Williams C and csd. 
Or you can order by calling 1-800-MWC-1700. 

I Mark 

601 North Skokie Highway, Lake Bluff, Illinois 60044 
©1988 Mark Williams Company 

Exclusive Online Offer for START Readers, Page 71 1 




20 Yes, Bui Is It Art? by Heather leifch 
The ST as an Artistic Tool 

30 m SEURAT by S. K. Webb 
Super- Powered Paint Program 

68 ygl Assembled Saucers by Walt Wakefield 
Graphics and Sound Assembly Language Demo 

84 jgj ST Coloring Book by Richard Fniroll 

Now Everyone Can Stay Inside the Lines 

88 Software Rental by Stacey Peterson 

Legitimate Business or Piracy? 

ST Artists At Work 


25 Art and Animation . . . Made Powerful by Marcus 
Three Graphics and Animation Programs 

49 Strike Up the Band by Mihai Manoliu 

Digigram's Big Band 

57 CAD Goes Pro by Dave Edwards 
Six CAD Programs Compared 

81 Three GM BASIC Books by David Plotkin 
Improving Upon the Manuals 


New CADs Make Their Mark 

Page 57 




Mac & PC on the ST 


For the Fun of It 91 

Dialog Box 

News, Notes and Quotes 

Stephen Mortimer & START Staff 

Products Update 


Using MS-DOS 

Planes, Thrones and Slapshots 


Getting Started 

Choosing Graphics Programs 


Heidi Brumbaugh 


IB Programming in Prolog 73 

■■■ Stepping Up to Prolog 

The ST/MIDI Connection 77 

News, Views and a Mini-Review 

European Report 

Games, Games ana More Gomes 


Disk Instructions 

Online with START 

Paaning Far Gold 


[D Indicates programs 
HI included on START Disk. 
See page 65 if you did not buy Disk Version 


James Capparell 


John Taggort 


Andrew Reese.. Editor 
Heidi Brumbaugh, Programs Editor 
Gregg PeaHman, Assistant Edilor 

Tom Byron, Assistant Editor 

Marta Oeike, Editorial Assistant 

Contributing Editors-. Tom Hudson, Alex Leavens, Stephen 

Mortimer, Jim Pierson-Perry, David Plotkin, David Small 

Contributors: Marcus Badglsy, Dave Edwards, Richard 

Farrell, Lajos V. Kreinheld, Heather Leitch, Slacey 

Peteison, Joseph Sdimuller, Rick Teverfaaugh, Scot Tumlin, 

Walt Wakefield, S.K.Webb, Andre Willey 


Linda Tapscott, Director of Creative Services 

Rick Bjnger, Art Director 

Dwight Been, Associate Art Director 

Georgia Solkov, Photo Editor 

Kale Murphy, Ad Production Coordinator 

JulianneOsaske, Colloternl Printing Coordinator 

Cover Collage: Laura Tarrish 


Austin Holian, 
Western Region, (415) 957 0886 

David Ksster 
Eastern Region, (415) 957-0836 


Manny Snwit, Director 

Amber Lewis, Subscription Coordinator 

Dennis Swan, Distribution Coordinator 

Denny Riley, Telemarketing 


James Capparell, President; Donald F. Richard and Richard 
D. (appofello, Board of Directors; Lee S. Isgnr, Advisory Board; 
John Cady, Controller; John Taggort, Associate Publisher 


Marguerite Birch, Credit Manager 

Tidei Bituin, Accounts Receivables Supervisor 

General Offices, Catalog Customer Service: (415)957-0886, 8 em 

la 4 pni Podfk Time. START, 544 Second Street, Son Francisco, CA 94107. 
Credit Cord Subscriplions and Catalog Orders: (600)234-7001. 
Subscription Customer Service: For change of address and inquir- 
ies, include subscription Inbei and wills to START Subscriplions, P0 Bo* 
1569, Martinez, CA 94553 or call (415)372-4002, 9 am to 4:30 pm 
Pacific Time, 

March 1989, Volume 3 Number 6. START Magazine (ISSN M9-6216), 
is published monlhly by Antic Publishing, Inc., 544 Second St., Son 
Framisco, CA 9410/. third Class postage paid at Waseca, MN. Subscrip- 
tions: [for 12 issues with disk): 579.95 in U.S.; 587.95 in Cenadannd 
Mexico; $91.95 for other foreign address. POSTMASTER: Plnnse send 
address changes Id START Magazine, PO So* 1569, Martinez, CA 94553. 

Ho port dI tiiis publication may lie leprodned, sic-red in o retrieval system, uitluns- 
nrilftd, Hi lirry hum or bf or-/ iiku-.l, :~kIidii :, -'■.'..■■mid, pholKopying, r«Dtding, 
oi otiienuBB. without the poor written petmissiofl ol lh) publisher START is an irde pcn- 
dontpenm)imlnotnlliliolHl,-cr:y*n(*iliitr;: Op. ATARI is o nodamnrk oi lha 
Atari Cap. All ifisronrcL lo .'ij fi-.-l.r: ::-:■ lm:?;io'?! o id should be so rated. 
START isoftodernoikcliiii.- MlfcUty !n: ."n. li.-.-:TT.nhi;n TathftOtOfly Companv. 
Copyright© 1989 by/l-'r ?i.b!::h r.g . ,11 firjlls taerwd. Printed in USA. 

It's been a year since we last focused on graphics in START. It's rime that we take 
another look at the state of graphics and animation on the ST. 

To lead off, in Yes, But Is It Art?, we look over the shoulders of three artists 
who use their STs as a part of their creative processes. Jon Fordyce is a sculptor, 
Marcus Badgley runs a commercial graphics business and Darrel Anderson is one 
of the sharpest computer artists around. Despite the ST's relatively limited palette, 
these artists have made excellent use of the computer's power to create works of an 
that may well survive them. How much am I bid for a genuine Anderson? 

We've also focused our START disk on graphics this issue, and oh, what a disk it 
is! Tom Hudson's DEGAS Elite may have set the standard for ST graphics programs, 
but this issue we offer SEURAT as serious competition. SEURAT runs in all three 
resolutions and offers up to eight screens, each with its own palette, powerful block 
options and more Fills and features than you can imagine We think SEURAT will 
find a place in every ST artist's program library. 

We've also included the ST Coloring Book, a marvelous "little" program that's 
supposedly for the younger artists among us. It's so good and so much fun that 
adults will enjoy it as much as kids. Take a look at this program even if you don't 
have children. 

Assembly language programming is the next step for many BASIC programmers 
seeking greater control over the ST's innards. It's not easy to master assembly 
language techniques for handling graphics and sound, but our demonstration pro- 
gram, Assembled Saucers, will give you budding assembly language programmers 
insights into how to handle the tricky stuff. 

Commercial graphics and CAD programs have come a long way in the past year. 
Marcus Badgley, our resident graphics guru, has placed three of the best graphics 
programs, Art/Film Director, Unispec and Cyber Paint, on his palette and gives you 
his evaluations this issue. And Dave Edwards, a CAD professional, has updated his 
Electronic T-Square CAD overview in CAD Goes Pro to focus on the newest and 
best CAD software. 

There are also a few minor changes this issue: We're taking a short break from 
Programming in BASIC to give you a look at Prolog, the language of artificial intelli- 
gence. And Dave Small has been building Spectre 128 cartridges so fast and furi- 
ously that we decided to give him a break from Small Tools this issue He will 
return next issue with even more on Hard Disks. 

Finally, we have a Special Offer this issue: if you use your ST to make beautiful 
music, then you'll definitely want to read Online With START. Through a special 
arrangement with PAN, the Professional Artist's Network, we are able to offer 
START readers a free sign-on. This is only available during the month of February, 
so act fast! 

We think that we've put together a great issue for you. We hope that you'll enjoy it. ■ 

(y6u.^V S / 

Andrew Reese 


START, The #1 Guide to the Atari ST 

rr?s : 

Zero to Sieve in 5 

SeCOnds! Because LaserC is fast. 
Really fast. Infact, so fast it can compile and 
link the popular sieve 
benchmark in 5 sec- 
onds! Spend more 
time programming 
and less time waiting 
on the compiler. 

Whether you're an 
amateur or a profes- 
sional., LaserC is the 
right C language 
development system 
for you. LaserC has 
everything you need 
to develop commercial grade applications or 
desk accessories for the ST. 

LaserC is the only integrated C environ- 
ment available for the ST. Program entry is a 
snap with the mu It i -window mouse and 
keyboard editor. Compile and execute your 
programs directly from the editor with a 
single keystroke! 

Perform disk operations such as file copy, or 
run any program with just a few clicks of the 

mouse— there's no need to leave the editor. 

In addition to the large compliment of 
UNIX 1 " compatible library routines, LaserC 
allows complete access 
to the ST ROM routines 
—all documented in 
the 650 page manual. 


powerful source level 
debugger! Now you 
can view your source 
code while it runs. 
Monitor C variables, 
set breakpoints with 
the mouse, and evalu- 
ate C expressions interactively. Multiple 
windows and easy command structure 
make debugging fast and efficient. 

Get LaserC and LaserDB— the ultimate C 
development system for your ST. 

"We converted Dungeon Master to Laser C 
and doubled or tripled our productivity. We 
now use Laser C exclusively for our ST 
Development. " 

—Wayne Holder, 
President, FTL Games 

One-pass generating relocat- 
able code. Absolute addressing 
of globals allows program's 
code and data to be as large as 
memory allows. Ultrafast linker 
accepts both Laser C and DRI 
format object files. 

Integrated editor and develop- 
ment shell. Cut.copy, and paste 
between files. Pull-down menus 
and dialog boxes to control edi- 
tor and run compiler. Fast 
scrolling and text entry— sup- 
ports large files. Special window 
can be used as a command line 
interpreter. Built-in dynamic 
disk cache and facilities for 
RAM resident compiler and 
other Laser utilities. 


Resource Construction Pro- 
gram, full-featured Make util- 
ity, linker, dissassembler, 
archiver/librarian accept Laser 
C and DRI objects files. 

Laser C 

Mark Williams C v3.0 



Run Error 


Link Run Error 

Hello. c 














Sieve. c 




















1.18>;10 ; 

Source and assembly level 
debugger. Evaluate any C 
expression to print or set vari- 
ables. Source and assembly 
mode allows interaction with 
compiler output. Disassemble 
or dump memory. Set break- 
points with the mouse on C 
lines or machine instructions. 
Watch C variables or machine 
registers. Multi-window user 
interface. Simple command 

All times in seconds. 
AES consists of nine soi 
AES is built using Make. 
Mark Williams C using RAM disk. 

fiies totaling 1142 lines ot code. 


Box 851521, Richardson, Texas 75085-1521 
(214) 699-7400 

©Megamax, Int. 1988, LaserC and LaserDB sold separately 
[f you currently own MegamaxCtbrtbeST, update to LaserC 
for $20. Call for details. (214) 699-7400. Now available 
through distributers. UNIX™ is a trademark of AT&T. 


I B« I 

You wouldn't do this to your floppy. 
Why do it to your hard dii 

lust like a floppy that is locked into a drive, a hard disk quickly [ills 
up. Now with Infinite Storage System One" 1 package (ISS-I ™] you will 
never run out of storage space, and at less than S3.88 a megabyte. 
The ISS-1 package comes with everything necessary to give you the 
storage capacity you need, a master drive (ISS-la), interface 
(ISS-STint), necessary software (driver and formatter], and an 
advanced utility package. 


The ISS-1 is a 21.4MB Bernoulli Technology " system that performs 
with the fastest hard disk drives [MO msec average access). ISS-1 gives 
you unlimited primary storage and supplies quick backups for both 
the Bernoulli disk cartridges and standard hard disks in under 2 5 
minutes. An additional slave drive (ISS-lbj makes life that much 


The disk cartridge has a 5 year media life rating under normal use, 
and is very durable (I0OGG shock rating without data loss). The light 
weight disk cartridge is ideal for transporting data with guaranteed 
drive/cartridge interchange. The ISS-1 provides a virtually head crash 
free technology that is not available from any other mass storage 

Since there's no such thing as a perfect world, we also cover the ISS- 1 
hardware with a I -year limited warranty, and the disk cartridges with 
a 90-day limited warranty. 

ISS-i is fully compatible with all Atari ST' U , Mega ST T " computers and 
Atari ST software emulation products. The ISS-1 works with existing 
Bernoulli boxes', and is disk format compatible with PC DOS disks 

Product list: 

ISS- 1; 

ISS- 1 a. 
ISS-1 b: 


ISS-STint, ISS- 1 a and software 

ST Interface 

21.4 MB Master drive | interna] power supply) 

21 4 MB Slave drive 

Single removable disk cartridge 

Tri-pack of disk cartridges 

ST DMA port 3-way extender 
Also available is a 3-way DMA port extender allowing up to 3 SCSI 
interfaces to be connected at the same time and extending ST to 
interface cable lengths up to 8 feet each Now the ISS-1 and your 
existing hard disks can be used together. 
The ISS-I is the combination to unlock your storage system 

For pricing and additional information contact: 


4695 S. 1900 W. Suite 6 - Roy, Utah 84067 - |80l | 773-8447 

All products available now Allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery 
Dealer inquiries welcome. 

Specifications subject to change without notice 

'Excluding Beta 5 drive systems 

Bernoulli Box and Bernoulli TxhnA^y ji& veered iraJwwh o) IOMEGA Corp 

Atari ST and Mega ST are trademarks ol Man Corp 


• True SCSI compatibility 

• Full SCSI command set 

• Host to drive lengths of up to 
23 feet 

• Host to interface length of 31 

■ Front lighted power switch 

• Lower cost slave drives 

Utility Package Features 

• User friendly Interface 

■ Allows up to 4 partitions per 
disk cartridge 

• Duplicateentirediskcartridges 

• Copy partitions quickly 

• Full surface test and bad 
sector repairs 

■ Disk structure diagnostics and 

■ Disk sector editor 

■ Bootable device driver 
supports full removability, up 
to 16 SCSI devices, contains 
highly advanced error recovery 
features, and performs real 
time sector repairs 

Dialog fa 

Letters From Our Readers 

Surprise! A Speed 
Adjustment! (Maybe) 

In the "Small Tools" column (START 
Special Issue #4) on floppy drive 
speeds, I was a little surprised by David 
Small's remark that "as far as I know, 
these things aren't adjustable; I have yet 
to see an ST drive with a speed adjust- 
ment in it." In fact, there is a speed ad- 
justment in both of the SF354 drives 1 
have It is VR02 on the motor control 
board, inside the shielded section and 
accessible through a hole in the shield. 
(Unfortunately, it is misidentined as 
VR01 in the Sams Computerfacts 
CSCS12-A on the ST disk drives.) After 
considerable jerry-rigging to get my 
drives set up where I could run them 
and adjust this potentiometer at the 
same time, I was able to tweak both of 
them to 300 rpm (plus or minus 1 

Back now to some early issues. Since 
my recent purchase of an NEC P2200 
24-pin printer, I find myself having to 
use Tom Hudson's screen dump printer 
driver (Premiere Issue) and the corre- 
sponding printer driver creator (Spring 
1987). My question is, why do I now 
drop out of Caps Lock mode when I do 
a screen dump? 

Finally, would it be possible for you 
to print the address and phone number 
of whatever company is now handling 
support for Batteries Included's soft- 
ware, particularly DEGAS Elite? 

Robert E. Wildman 

Greenland Ice Cap 

APO New York 

Atari lias used a number of different disk 
drive suppliers over the years. They have 
varied in quality, but the current supplier, 
Epson, is known throughout the industry for 
its excellent, reliable drives. Depending 
upon which drive you have, it may have a 
drive speed adjustment. If you have the 
technical familiarity, it you are either be- 
yond your disk drive's warranty period (or 
don't mind violating your warranty) and if 
your drive has an adjustment, you may use 
it to adjust the drive's speed. If any of those 
three factors are missing, we recommend 
taking your off-speed drive to an authorized 
Atari service center for correction. 

We aren't sure why you drop out of 
Caps Lock when you do a screen dump. If it 
occurs within a word processing program, it 
may be the result of the interaction of the 
driver and that particular program. Any 
suggestions, readers? 

Marketing oj Battcnes Included's pre- 
mier product, DEGAS Elite, has been taken 
over by Electronics Arts, 1820 Gateway 
Drive, San Mateo, CA 94404, (415) 571- 
7171. Although EA's responses to our in- 
auiries have varied from "What is DEGAS 
Elite?" to "We aren't supporting that prod- 
uct," the last word we received was that EA 
would continue to sell and support DEGA5 
Elite. By the way, if you're looking for an al- 
ternative, try SEURAT on this issue's START 
Disk. - START Editor ■ 

Where's the Update? 

I decided to subscribe to START mainly 
because I liked the fact that you and 
Bruce D. Noonan gave your readers up- 
dates to ST Writer I bought the issue 

that had the Version 2.0 at the news- 
stand. In that issue you promised con- 
stant updates of ST Writer. I decided to 
subscribe because I didn't want to miss 
any of these updates. 

As of the latest issue (December 
1988), I've yet to see even a hint as to 
when the next ST Writer update is to 
come If you're not going to give your 
readers updates to ST Writer, I'll just 
cancel my subscription and buy the is- 
sue off the newsstand when you finally 
do get around to it. IF you have written 
off future updates, let everyone know so 
we can all write off START magazine 
Thanks again. 

Thomas McGeehan 

Santa Ana, California 

A number of readers have written asking 
for the latest version of ST Writer and Ver- 
sion 3.0 will appear in the April 1989 issue 
of START. Dr. Since Noonan has outdone 
himself with this new GEM version, which 
is fully debugged, allows true ASCII file- 
saving and direct conversion of Atari Writer 
files. In addition, we asked Dr. Noonan to 
write a word processor file conversion pro- 
gram, which converts files accurately be- 
tween ST Writer, WordPerfect, 1ST Word 
Plus and Word Writer; it's also scheduled 
for the same issue.-START Editor 

Ricoh Review Reviewed 

The article by Frank Hayes in the De- 
cember 1988 issue concerning the 
Ricoh 6000 laser printer was very ir- 
responsible. Mr Hayes neglected to 
mention that this fine printer has both ► 

START The ST Monthly 

Unleash the Power 

of your ATARI 5LM804 Printer with 


you can add PostScript Printing Capabilities 

to your Desktop Publishing System 




IMAGEN Corporation, a QMS company, has teamed up 

with ATARI to bring you Ultrascript ST on the 

Atari Mega 2 and Mega 4 Personal Computer System. 



Available at your local Atari 
dealer or order direct from: 

IMAGEN Corporation 
P.O. Box 58101 
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8101 
or call 800/635-3997 

Dialog ltii\ 

HP LaserJet II Plus and Epson emula- 
tion cards available. The printer works 
very well with Timeworks Desktop Pub- 
lisher, WordPerfect, 1ST Word Plus and 
even the Old Express letter processor. 

Also Mr. Hayes fails to mention that 
the Ricoh comes with a full megabyte of 
memory, plenty of toner and a drum 
cartridge all for a price that is the lowest 
on the market today. 

Raymond E. McAlpin 

Park Ridge, Illinois 

We tested the least expensive, "plain vanilla 
version" of Ricoh's laser printer without any 
add-in emulation cards. As equipped, the 
Ricoh perfomed adequately, but not excep- 
tionally. We thank you jar bringing this ad- 
ditional information to our readers, how- 
ever -START Editor 

Disk Cache-less 

As an Atari 8-bit user and Antic sub- 
scriber, I subscribed to START as soon 
as 1 decided that I had to have an ST. I 
purchased my 1040ST about a year ago 
and the SH240 hard-disk drive a few 
months later. 

David Plotkin's review, "The 
Indispensable Peripheral" (December 
1988), stated that the SH204 boot disk 
includes a disk cache program, I can't 
locate this program on my boot disk or 
find any reference to it in my owner's 

Could you please advise me as to 
how to create a disk cache? I have also 
written to Atari Customer Support but 1 
have found them slow to respond. 

I am not a programmer, 1 leave that 
to the experts. I am, however, an avid 
user and an electronics technician by 
occupation. I find most Atari user's 
manuals lacking all but the basic in- 
structions on how to plug the equip- 
ment in and turn it on in "Dick and 

Jane" terminology. They have little for 
the user with a basic computer under- 
standing. I depend mostly on START for 
the information I need. Thanks. 

Ron Ritzman 

Marietta, Georgia 

We were in error; Atari's disk cache pro- 
gram is a part of the second generation of 
Atari hard dish utilities, These should be 
released early in 1989 and Atari may allow 
free distribution of their dish cache pro- 
gram, but they have not announced their 
policy as ofpresstimc. However, there are 
several commercial disk cache programs 
that work well. Check the ads in this issue 
for names and availabilities. — START 

Satisfied Customer 

I am writing to tell you how much I 
appreciated "The Indispensable Periph- 
eral," the five-brand comparison of ST 
hard drives by David Plotkin in the 
December issue 

Since I am in the market for a hard 
drive for my 1040ST, I found this article 
very informative and timely. 

Also, congratulations on going 
monthly! I have been buying START 
since the very first issue and enjoy it 
very much. It is the best computer 
magazine on the market for the ST com- 
puter I read every issue from cover to 
cover and thanks to your increased fre- 
quency I can now enjoy it more than 

Robert G. Hull 

Easthampton, Massachusetts 

Thank you- START Editor 

Needs BASIC Help 

I am the ST disk librarian for the Atari 
Computer Enthusiasts of New South 
Wales in Sydney, Australia. Both the 

club and its individual members enjoy 
your magazine immensely. I have had 
my ST for 1 1 months and just love it, 
hence my involvement in our club. 

Unfortunately no one over here likes 
or uses ST BASIC. Since it's free I hope 
to at least gain some mastery over it be- 
fore 1 progress to a more complex, and 
commercial, language. John Hutchinson, 
who has recently written articles for 
you, claims that GFA BASIC is the only 
language. Is it really that good? 

Also, 1 would like to write some easy 
BASIC programs for my very young 
children, so how do I import DEGAS or 
NEOchrome pictures into my pro- 
grams? Can I do this with ST BASIC or 
should I get ahold of GFA BASIC to 
do it? 

1 would be ecstatic if you could help. 
Thank you For the greatest magazine 
and for the issues to come. 

Cathy Tuck 

Sidney, Australia 

We agree that GFA BASIC is just as good 
as John Hutchinson says. In fact, if you'll 
check your January 1989 START Disk, 
you'll see that the GFA BASIC 2.0 Inter- 
preter was included on the disk for just the 
price of the disk. Now you can try the cur- 
rent "standard" BASIC for the ST. Abo, 
take a look at Putmaker in the November 
1988 issue; it's an easy way to incorporate 
graphics into a GFA BASIC program.— 
START Editor ■ 


START Welcomes submissions. Please include 
both hard copy printouts of articles and pro- 
gram listings as well as disk files on ST com- 
patible disks. Media will be returned if 
self-addressed, stamped mailer is supplied. 
START assumes no responsibility for 
unsolicited editorial materials. 

START The ST Monthly 9 



If you wanttomake your Atari ST explode 
with action you've got to give it dynamite games. 
These are the world famous original arcade 
screamers. Operation Wolf," Alcon," Bubble 
Bobble" and Arkanoid'" will make your ST do 
things you didn't think were possible. 

Everyone knows that arcade games are the 
benchmark for all other video games and Taito 

has been an arcade leader since 1953. Since 
then we've made over 1,000 classics for arcade 
and home play. Count on Taito to bring the heat 
of the arcade to your home computer. 

Buy Taito products at leading stores every- 
where. Visa/Mastercard holders can order direct 
anywherein the United States by calling toll free 



What's Happening in the Atari World 

by Stephen Mortimer 
and the START Staff 

Solid Gold 

The Fall Computer Dealer's Exposition (COMDEX) trade show was held in Las 
Vegas, Nevada from November 14-18, 1988. Well over a hundred thousand atten- 
dees plodded the floors of the Las Vegas Convention Center, seven other venues 
and numerous hotel suites during the five-day event. 

Atari sprung for the 6,000-square-foot Gold Room in the Las Vegas Convention 
Center and established a solid presence, themed 'Solid Gold." Though Atari's own 
product showings were conservative at best, it did make its space available to over 
60 third-party developers. Among the products displayed by Atari were UltraScript, 
DeskSet II, the Atari Transputer Workstation (ATW), 80286 and 80386 PC clones 
and a software/hardware package called Robokit. The long-awaited Atari laptop 
was finally unveiled to a US. audience during the mid-week developer's gathering. 
Atari also played host in the Gold Room to a short concert by Fleetwood Mac. 

Mick Fleetwood star 
COMDEX crowd wi 
his MIDI vest in Ato 

Third-Party Hardware at COMDEX 

With Atari showing so few new prod- 
ucts, the third-party developers had 
their chance to shine. Some of the high- 

• Navarone Industries introduced ST 
Copy, a peripheral that allows its ST 
Scan image scanner and the Atari Laser 
Printer to act as a copy machine when 
coupled together through an ST or 

• John Russell Innovations QRJ) dis- 
played its Genlock System hardware for 
the Mega that allows low- and medium- 
resolution graphics to be superimposed 
over standard NTSC video from a TV, 
VCR or video camera. Genlock is pend- 
ing FCC certification and is tentatively 
priced at $500. 

• ICD unveiled its new FA-5T Tape 
Backup which can store up to 155 
megabytes of data on one cassette Both 
file and image backups are available. 

ilock, a hardware add-in for the 
as shown by John Russell in near- 
l. The FCC is now grinding through 
its testing and approval process for this excel- 
lent $500 package. 

final forr 

• Australian-based Neriki Computer 
Graphics showed its Image Master, an 
interface to the Polaroid Palette priced at 
$650. image Master allows color slides 
or Polaroids to be produced directly 
from an ST. 

• IBP, a West German company, 
showed the first repackaging of the ST. 
Their industrial 190ST uses Mega com- 
ponents and is assembled as a series of 
mgged modules integrated into a 19-inch 
metal case It sports all the features of a 
normal ST in addition to an optional 
math coprocessor and blitter chip. 

• Nite Lite Systems demonstrated their 
Lantext RS232 Local Area Network for 
the ST. The LAN supports up to seven 
nodes from a single host system. ► 

START The ST Monthly 11 

Third-Party Software Highlights 

■ Masterlink, a new telecommunications package from Intersect Software, was 
demonstrated in its prototype form. It offers multiple buffers and a programmable 
script language. An early 1989 release is scheduled. 

■ British company Mirrorsoft came to the show with their latest version of Fleet 
Street Publisher. Spectrum Holobyte is no longer distributing Fleet Street in the U.S., 
and Mirrorsoft is looking for a new distributor. 

• Spectrum Holobytes Falcon (set for review in the April 1989 START) is an ac- 
curate F-16 fighter simulation that features unsurpassed animation and the ability 
to conduct dogfights and weapon deliveries. FTL introduced Chaos Strikes Back, 
the sequel to Dungeon Master. Electronic Arts showed its Monopoly and a minia- 
ture golf game called Zany Golf. Falcon, Chaos Strikes Back, Monopoly and Zany 
Golf should be available as you read this. 

■ OMIKRON. BASIC was being shown in the U.S. for the first time Currently 
available in Europe, OMIKRON. BASIC is GW BASIC compatible and will soon be 
available here 

• From French company Digital Laboratory Research come two programs of note 
Amadeus ST is a computer-assisted music-study program that teaches you to read 
music. Lazergraph is a desktop music publisher that allows the Atari Laser to pro- 
duce musical scores. Other popular software came from Dr T's, Hybrid Arts, Sonus 
and others. 

• MichTron announced that it will no longer distribute GFA BASIC and related 
products from GFA in Germany. Instead, they will sell Hi-Soft BASIC and Power 
BASIC in the US. GFA is currently seeking an alternative distributor for the product 
line in the United States, or it may open its own offices. 

GDOS Output 

OSpooIer from Migraph is a desk acces- 
sory that spools output from GDOS- 
based programs to a printer Operating 
in a background mode, which allows 
the computer to be used for other tasks, 
OSpooIer eliminates the time previously 
wasted while waiting for the printer to 
finish. Another feature supported by 
OSpooIer is the ability to redirect out- 
put to disk. The resulting file can later 
be output to a device on any computer 
without the need for GDOS, assuming 
that the GDOS driver present in the 
originating ST system corresponds to 
the final output device This could be 
an HP LaserJet, a Roland plotter or any 
one of Migraph's other device drivers. 
The spooler includes a buffer that 
will intercept other printer tasks to pre- 
serve the integrity of the current file be- 
ing printed. Up to 25 files can be placed 
in a queue for output to either serial or 
parallel devices. A nine-pin printer 
driver for OSpooIer is included in the 
package OSpooIer retails for $39.95. For 
more information, contact Migraph at 720 
South 333 Street #202, Federal Way, 
Washington 98003. (206) 838-4677. ► 

The four gold-colored chips on this ATW add-in cord ore Inmos T800 transputers. Each card 
will nearly quintuple the ATW's processing power at a price of only $4,000-$5,000 per card. 
Now if there were only some software. . . 

The Atari Transputer Workstation (ATW) has 
been engineered into a floor-standing tower 
design. It will enter production in early 1989. 

12 March 1989 


The NEXT Generation* 


"There is no question that this version of Calamus blows its Atari 

competitors out of the water. . ." 

"In fact, Calamus, in my opinion, competes neck-and-neck with 

all page layout programs on the Mac and the IBM." 

Personal Publishing, September 1988 

At a suggested retailpriccof US 8299-95, Calamus is setting a new 
price performance benchmark for the desktop publishing industry . 

For more information or to place your order, call or write to: 
ISD Marketing, Inc. 2651 John Street, Unit #3 Markham, Ontario, L3R-2W5, Canada. 
Tel. 416 479-1880, Fax: 416 479-1882. 

All computers and software are tradenames and /or trademarks of their respective manufacturers. 

ita, Notes &l)uote 

ST Used In 
Parts Catalog 

Kar Technologies is offering a car pares 
catalog system based on the 1040ST 
and a Sony CD-ROM player. The system 
can be run on either monochrome or 
color monitors and is encased in a 
metal box that houses the computer 
and CD player. According to Ron Sprun- 

ger, Kar Technologies has developed 
their own CD-ROM interface for the ST 
in order to use the Sony player. The In- 
terface may be used for other commer- 
cial applications if warranted by future 

The KarMate system offers access to 
over 15 million records, graphics, and 
diagrams. It retails for $2,995. For more 
information, contact Kar Technologies at 
74-050 Highway 111, Palm Desert, Cali- 
fornia 92260. (619) 340-5900. 

"I want one of 
those" was the most 
heard comment at 
Atari's developer's 
party. They were 
referring to the new 
ST laptop computer, 
shown here in both 
mock-up and engi- 
neering prototype 
form. A bright 
backlit supertwist 
LCD screen provides 
a full 640X480 
monochrome com- 
patible screen. 

Atari Software at Comdex 

Atari's most impressive new product was its PostScript emulator, UkraScript. Dis- 
played for Atari by Soft Logik, UkraScript is the result of a joint project between 
Atari and Imagen. In its present form, the emulator is a stand-alone program that 
requires the user to print a PostScript file to disk, then output it to the Atari laser 
printer via UkraScript. Several disk-based scalable fonts are included with the 
package. UkraScript requires four megabytes of memory and five megabytes of free 
disk space to operate efficiently. It was scheduled to be released before the end of 
1988. As of presstime, no price had been set. 

DeskSet II, a new high-end desktop publishing package was introduced at 
COMDEX by Atari. This updated version of DeskSet (shown at last year's Fall 
COMDEX) sports a full GEM interface with windows and icons, along with their 
keyboard equivalents. Developed in conjunction with G.O. Graphics, DeskSet II 
uses CompuGraphic scalable outline fonts available in half-point sizes from 5 to 
127 points. According to Elizabeth Shook, newsletter coordinator at Atari, an inter- 
face board will be available that allows direct connection of a Mega to a Compu- 
Graphic photo-typesetting machine. DeskSet II is priced at $299. 

Atari Hardware 
at Comdex 

Given Atari's policy of not showing 
products before they're (nearly) ready 
for shipment, the 68030 Unix TT and 
the enhanced STs were nowhere to be 
seen. Atari did, however, demonstrate 
an almost final version of the Atari 
Transputer Workstation (ATW), sched- 
uled for early 1989 European release. 
Formerly called the Abaq, the ATW was 
developed in England by Perihelion and 
is packaged in a sleek tower design. The 
Mega 4, formerly necessary as a front- 
end for the ATW has been incorporated 
into the main box. Also shown were 4- 
chip transputer add-in cards for the 
ATW at a cool $4,000-55,000 a pop. 

The PC4 and PC5 IBM-compatible 
computers and Robokit were also dis- 
played by Atari. The PC4 uses an 80286 
processor, while the PC5 is an 80386- 
based machine. Both are set for 1989 
US. release, complete with integrated 
VGA graphics. Robokit allows for 
manipulation and design of robots and 
includes a special interface that plugs 
into the ST's cartridge port. 

At the informal developer's get- 
together, held on Wednesday night of 
COMDEX week, Atari President Sam 
Tramiel wowed the crowd with the Atari 
laptop. Still in prototype stage, the Lap- 
top is scheduled lor a mid-1989 release. 
Some of its features include up to one 
megabyte of RAM, a minimum 20 mega- 
bytes of hard-disk storage and a choice 
of one or two floppy drives. A small 
trackball replaces the mouse. ■ 

If you have a hot tip let us know at News, 
Notes & Quotes, START Magazine, 
544 Second Street, San Francisco, CA 


14 March 1989 



1(80 0) HHH- 9273 


981 Wesl Commercial Blvd., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 

5 Star Pack 30.00 

Space Harrier 


Barbarian Ult. Warrior 

Arkanoid I 


Crazy Cars 
Enduro Racer 

Arkanoid II 
Star Wars 





Arcade Force4 30.00 

Gauntlet II 


Road Runner 

Super Hang On 


Metro Cross 
Indiana Jones 

Capt. Blood UK 
Publisher STusa 


Florida Res. Add 6% Tax 

Prices Subject to cliang 

Other Questions Call 305-938-9755 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 

|^^ |M COD 

New Improved 


P.O. Box 5257 

Winter Park, Florida 32793 

(407) 657-4611 


• Makes your 520 / 1040 ST'" outrun a Mega ST™. 

• New version supports HiRes 40 and 50 line modes. 

• Makes ALL versions of TOS run faster. 

• Only $49.95 — Less than half the cost of a hardware blitter. 

• Installs automatically — just load it and forget it. 

• No soldering, no copy protection, no setup — Just speed. 

Turbo ST vs The Blitter 


speed increase) 



dBMan 5.0 


Turbo ST 


Turbo ST 





Data Manager 1. 





1ST Word 1.0 










Interlink 1.8 










ST Writer 3.0 





Word Writer 2.0 






obtained while 

paging through 


appropriate data file 


Ask for Turbo ST at your local dealer or send $49.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
to SofTrek, P.O. Box 5257. Winter Park, FL 32793. Florida residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa and MasterCard phone orders accepted. Call (407) 657-4611. Upgrades to version 
1.4 are available for $5.00 U.S. plus your original disk. Offer expires 60 days from the 
date of this publication. 

Turbo ST does not speed up programs (hat use GDOS fonts or that bypass the GEM operating 
system, such as PC Ditto, but is compaiible with them. TOS, ST BASIC. ST Writer, 520 ST, 1040 
ST. and Mega ST are trademarks or registered trademarks of Atari Corp. 

Get In The Fast Lane — Buy Turbo ST Today! 


■" H„.' 1 n'*' l ' l> 

hog to express my appreciation 
of the BYTE MECHANIC program. U 
provided exactly the facilities I needed to 
■ -'"fit** file for import into 

START'! Venlsn of a Clonic Game- 

and again, I personalfy congratulate J. 
" Dn for making me right stuff. If s 


DD The START disks on loaded with 
great programs, and every month they 
get better. Subscribing to your magazii 
was the next best thing to buying my 
Mega 2 ST. As acting president of o us* 

, I tell 



Subscribe Today! 

Call Toll Free 800-234-7001 

(6am-6pm P.S.T. Monday-Friday) 
Credit Card Orders Only 

Products Update 

New ST Software and Hardware 

Compiled by Tom Byron 
START Assistant Editor 

New Games 
from Epyx 

Two new games from Epyx promise all- 
out-and-out fun! 

Battleship, the computer version of 
the classic strategic board game from 
Milton Bradley pits you against either 
the computer or a friend. 

Secretly position your aircraft car- 
riers, submarines, destroyers, torpedo 
boats and battleships on the grid map. 
Then the action begins and the "game" 
becomes a deadly version of hide and 
seek. Players place their hits to try and 
destroy their opponent's fleet-without 
having their own ships blown out of the 
water! One mistake could mean a wa- 
ter)' grave in this furious high-seas 

Seasoned Seadogs battle black forces 
who possess bizarre architectural abili- 
ties in Tower Toppler. On the planet 

In Epyx's computer 
version of the clas- 
sic Milton Bradley 
game Battleship, 
players race to see 
who can be first to 
sink the other's 

Nebulus, yourMK-7 Mini-Sub takes you 
to eight mysterious, rotating towers that 
have risen ominously from the toxic 
sea. As a senior operative for Destructo, 
Inc., you have been sent to topple these 
terrible towers down into the putrid 

Speed, coordination and quick judg- 

ment are the only traits that will get you 
to the top in Tower Toppler. Stunning 
3D graphics and challenging gameplay 
will have you hooked from the word 
"go."Battleship, $29.95. Tower Toppler, 
$49.95. Epyx, 600 Galveston Drive, 
P.O. Box 8020, Redwood City, CA 
94063, (415) 368-3200. 

Computing Experimental 

Explore the wonders of computers with a new construction kit from Fischer America. 
It's called Computing Experimental and it promises hours of educational fun. 
The kit comes complete with all the switches, lights and wires you'll need to 
start experimenting with your computer. A comprehensive guide to the construc- 
tion kit provides an introduction to the programming of machines and robots. All 
of the experiments art* described in detail and only ?. minimum knnwk'dgt: nf com- 
puters and BASIC is required. Simplified instructions and a new wiring harness 
make assembly easy. $379 (includes kit, interface, software and power supply). 
Fischer America, Inc., 175 Route 46 West, Fairfield, NJ 07006, (201) 227-9283. 

START The ST Monthly 17 

Products Update 

Radio-Controlled Flight 
Simulation System 

Learning to fly your radio-controlled plane or helicopter just became easier. The 
R/C Aerochopper radio-controlled flight simulation system for your ST puts you 
as close to real R/C flying as you can get, without the worry of crashing or 
bad weather 

Developed by Ambrosia Microcomputer Products, Inc., R/C Aerochopper is 
manufactured by Futaba Corporation and uses the same transmitter box and con- 
trols as the Futaba Conquest series of radios. R/C Aerochopper is designed to 
simulate the experience of real R/C flight and puts you at the controls of a number 
of different airplanes, helicopters, ducted fan jets and even a glider 

Each R/C Aerochopper Flight Simulation System includes a Futaba Conquest 
dual-stick radio with interface cable, programmed computer interface cartridge 
and complete owners reference manual. R/C Aerochopper, $189.95. Ambrosia 
Microcomputer, Suite 371, 98 West 63rd Street, Willowbrook, IL 60514, 
(312) 655-0610. 

R/C Aerochopper 
teaches you to fly 
planes, jets and 
helicopters with 
your ST. 

The Magic 

Water Fountain Software brings to your 
children the enchanting world of read- 
ing while teaching them the complexi- 
ties of their computer The Magic Play- 
ground is an interactive animated story 
that parents and children can read to- 
gether from the computer screen. Easy 
to use, it's designed to be just like read- 
ing a book. 

The Magic Playground's story is sim- 
ple. There are two playgrounds. On one 
you can interactively play on the swings 
or on the slide, with the water fountain 
or in the sandbox; the other is the 
Magic Playground, where anything can 
happen and often does. 

As the story unfolds, your children 
are exposed to many of the things a 
computer can do. They will also learn to 
use the mouse, keyboard, return key 
function keys and arrow keys. In other 
words, your children will have a good 
time and become computer literate 
without realizing it. Runs in medium 
and high resolution. The Magic Play- 
ground, $20. Water Fountain Software, 
13 East 17th Street, New York, NY 


An ST memory-expansion alternative in 
a solid-state disk drive is now available 
as a kit from RONSAT Technologies, Inc. 
The STonehenge kit, based on an Ap- 
plication Specific Integrated Circuit 
(ASIC), emulates a hard disk by inter- 
facing the ST's DMA port with a block 
of DRAM. 

The STonehenge advantages over in- 
ternal memory expansion include the 

ability to utilize lower-cost 200 nanose- 
cond DRAM parts, memory expansion 
in 256-kilobyte increments (eight 
DRAMs per bank) and nondependence 
on the ST's power supply. Plus it's exter- 
nal, you don't take your ST apart and 
data is preserved even through an ST 
power cycle. 

When the kit is fully assembled it 
provides up to two megabytes of very 
fast external storage. If you need more 
than two megabytes, the DMA pass-thru 

feature can be utilized to daisy chain 
more kits or mechanical hard drives. 
STonehenge, $169.95. RONSAT Tech- 
nologies, Inc., 368 Lexington Drive, 
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089, (312) 
520-8003. ■ 

Do you have a new ST product? Ij 
so, we'd like to hear from you. Please send 
your press release and product photos to 
Products Update, START Magazine, 
544 Second Street, San Francisco, CA 

18 March 1989 



Look out, Indiana Jones! 
Step aside, Bogie! 
Crash Garrett's in town! 

Don't wait 'till Sunday to catch-up on 
your favorite action comic — play 

No other adventure game is quite like 

Let ace flyer CRASH GARRETT escort 

you through Hollywood in the '30s to 
rescue sultry, sexy gossip columnist, 
Cynthia Sleeze, from the sinister Nazi 

mastermind Baron 
von Engel Krul 
and his cronies. 
Help CRASH stop 
this perverse Nazi 
spy-ring from kid- 
napping glamor- 
ous, American 
beauties to use as 
breeding stock for an Aryan race of 

superhumans. Be the voice in 
CRASH'S head as he encounters ad- 
venture after adventure with a whole 
group of wacky, depraved characters 
including Caleb Thorn, psychoanalyst 
to the stars, and Lotta 
Linebacker, a female 
wrestler who knows what 
she wants from a man! 
style and pizzazz — an 
animated comic book 
with a slick, continential 
look. It's about as much 
terror, intrigue and suspense you'll 
want from any game! 

Play Stir Crazy With Bobo — 

Your idea of "doing time" will definitely change! 

Had a little too much violence lately? 
Still want fun and action? Well, grab 
your joystick and join poor Bobo in six 
of the most graphically amusing 
adventure games ever on disk. 

Bobo's in prison— INZEESLAM- 
MER — where he spends most of his 
time performing menial chores and 
planning his escape. Bobo's no penal 

Bobo starts his day feeding porridge 
to hungry, irritable prisoners. Don't 

let him get too befuddled, or else he'll 
end up with the porridge bucket on 
his head. 

K.P.'s next. Speed 
is the key here. 
Don't let Bobo get 
buried underneath 
a pile of spuds! 
An exhausted Bobo 
tries to catch up on 
his beauty sleep, but 
is constantly interrupted by the relent- 
less snoring of his cell mates. 

Finally Bobo makes his escape and 
hurtles off into the sunset, right onto 
electric train cables. Bobo needs some 
pretty fancy footwork to avoid the 
pulsating current! 

Available for Atari ST* and 
Amiga" Computers at your 
favorite store. To order by 
phone, call 800-234-7001. 

STIR CRAZY with Bobo— s 34 95 


Terrific Software, 544 Second St., San Francisco, 
CA 94107 (415) 957-0886 


Bui Is It Art? 

Computer technology has 
been seen as a threat by 
many artists, but Marcus 
Badgley, Barrel Anderson 
and Jon Fordyce have em- 
braced the new technology 
and have shown that the 
computer can be as much 
a tool of the artist as a 
brush or chisel. 

by Heather Leitch 

20 March 1989 

A cross between Smurfs and California 
Raisins, Beschnoones could be a mer- 
chandiser's dream (if they were so in- 
clined), but they're hard to find. These 
colorful creatures live in the country 
Poony on the planet Universillion. 
Beschnoones are the main inhabitants 
of the planet and subsist on gourmet 
bubbles put out by flying bubble 
makers called Gourmet Bubble Bum- 
pers. But sometimes their mortal ene- 
mies, the Phalangers, creatures that 
resemble giant hands, follow the bubble 
makers around and quite literally burst 
their bubbles. This is bad news for our 
friends the Beschnoones, because then 
there's a famine. Beschnoones are basi- 
cally peaceful creatures, unlike the evil 
Mutants, beings that resulted from hu- 
mans crossbreeding with plants. The 
Mutants are very violent. 

Actually, the Beschnoones and their 
neighbors live in the Atari ST ol graphic 
designer Marcus Badgley. But they can 
be brought to life in bright, flashing 
computer color with the click of a 
mouse. The ST's glowing neon colors 
brought out the cartoonist in Badgley. 
The Beschnoones and their fellow in- 
habitants, the Famn Bo and Booder Ho, 
spring out of the computer terminal, 

giving more of a slide show than com- 
puter graphic effect. 

"I scanned my cartoon world into 
the computer because the colors are so 
bright. It's like working with neon," says 
Badgley "I'm scanning a 144-frame ani- 
mation sequence into the computer 

The ST is an integral parr of the 
design process for Badgley, as it is for 
many other artists. Badgley has used an 
ST since 1985 for everything from 
designing corporate logos to tending to 
his San Francisco company Gravity 

Design's business. "1 like to do a little of 
everything, 7 ' says Badgley. 'Td like to 
start animating the Beschnoone world." 

Artists like Badgley use the ST as 
another design tool, to supplement 
rather than replace paintbrushes and 

sketch pads. Along with giving the 
citizens of Universillion a place to live, 
the ST enables Badgley to view different 
color schemes and backgrounds for 
company logos, a mainstay for his 
graphic design. Badgley switches back 
and forth between the Atari and the 
drawing board in creating these designs. 

The initial design is still easier for 
him to sketch by hand. But after scan- 
ning the design into the computer, 
Badgley can alter the design or change 
the color without having to redraw and 
recolor the entire graphic. As in writing, 
the computer lets graphic designers take 
risks, such as experimenting with bright 
colors in a new logo for San Francsico- 
based Just Desserts, as Badgley is doing. 
He can also experiment with the struc- 
ture of business cards and logos. "It's 
easy to move the logo around when I'm 
designing company stationery," he says. 

Using the ST's graphic capabilities, 
Badgley also created a tutorial on how 
to draw for the not-so-artistically in- 
clined. The program starts with a series 

In his more serious 

This logo was exe- ► 

moments, Marcus 

cuted by Marcus 

Badgley operates 

Badgley (at right) 

Gravity Design, a 

on an ST using 

San Francisco graph- 

Spectrum 512/ 

ic design studio. 

Unispec for Badg- 

Badgley designed 

ley'sawn San Fran- 

the box art for the 

cisco graphic design 

Fall 1988 Antic Soft- 


ware line, including 

this proposed new 

box for Cyber Paint. 

of concentric circles. Gradually one cir- 
cle becomes the head, another becomes 
the nose, then eyes. 

For Badgley, some of the most useful 
applications of the ST have been for 
more mundane business tasks. Among ► 

START The ST Monthly 21 

Yes, But Is It Art? 

the programs he uses for his business 
are Data Manager for mailings; Word 
Writer ST for word processing; VIP 
Professional, a spreadsheet; and Time- 
works Publisher ST to help with news- 
letters. By putting his bookkeeping and 
mailing lists on his database, he is freed 
up for more creative work. "I actually 
use my computer as much or more to 
help out with the other aspects of run- 
ning the business/' says Badgley 

Darrel Anderson 

Carrying on in the science fiction genre, 
artist Darrel Anderson finds the Atari ST 
useful for illustrations such as those 
that grace the covers of the Venus Prime 
Series of science fiction books. Ander- 
son sketched a series of technical draw- 
ings to illustrate the high-tech 
spacecrafts found in the book. (Ander- 
son's work is at the back of the book. 
He didn't design the voluptuous heroine 
emerging from a spaceship on the 

He's also done illustration for chil- 
dren's books. For a collection of glow- 
in-the-dark children's books called 
Night Lights, Anderson used a 3D 
modeling program to set up illustrations 
for a book based on Ray Bradbury's 
story "Fever Dreams." 

Start with a circle, end up with wh< 

what. This is one step from Marcus Badgley's 

upcoming START article on ST cartooning. 

Jey mixes his ST graphic design 
work with off-hour whimsy. This is the title 
screen from his epic cartoon-in-the-making, 

"1 built a very simple model to ob- 
tain interesting camera angles," said An- 
derson. "1 would then print images of it, 
simple line drawings. The story itself is 
pretty scary. I was surprised they in- 
cluded it in a children's book." 

Darrel Anderson 
has long been known 
for his spectacular 
ST art. This sketch is 
and Seek," the third 
book in the "Venus 
Prime" series of 
science fiction books. 

Anderson has been incorporating 
Ataris into his art for two and a half 
years. This began when a client in New 
York sent him an Atari 800 to do some 
on-screen art for interactive role playing 
games. He feels one of the main advan- 
tages of the ST is the Cyber Studio series 
of CAD software "For this level of ma- 
chine, it's the best CAD package avail- 
able," he says. "Particularly with the 
easy interface You don't want the ma- 
chine to get in the way." 

Jon Fordyce 

Sculptor Jon Fordyce uses the ST to help 
him do mock-ups of sculptures before 
he starts building them. This is espe- 
cially useful since he works with such 
unforgiving materials as steel pipes and 
steel sheets. Fordyce first started using 
the ST after receiving an artistic com- 
mission to create a monumental sculp- 
ture at Case Western Reserve University 
in Ohio, In addition to using the com- 
puter as a tool, Fordyce also incorpo- 
rated it into the theme and artistic proc- 
ess for the commission. He believes that 
the computer is the most significant gift 
of the twentieth century, bringing with 
it both increased knowledge and under- 
standing and the ability to destroy us 
through military applications. 

"I decided that the concept of the 
piece should be the computer with a 
capital C," he says. "I wanted to create it 
out of heavy gauge stainless steel so it 
would last for thousands of years as a 
symbol to our idea." 

Fordyce likes to experiment with the 
sequence of his designs. Sometimes he'll 
do a 3D mock-up of a sculpture first, 
then build it; sometimes he modifies it 
on his computer halfway through. Since 
Fordyce works with heavy metals, the 
computer image is a little more mallea- 
ble than the real image. For a four-part 
series titled the "grid series," Fordyce 
actually incorporated the Atari into the 
sequence of his sculptures. The grid se- 
ries' theme centers on, as Fordyce saw 
it, the limitation of the computer versus 

"There's never 
enough time to do 
everything I have 
ideas for." 

the spontaneity of metal (which is 
opposite of what would seem to 
be true^ 

"This brings up a dilemma," says 
Fordyce. "How do you bring the geo- 
metric limitation of computer graphics 
to the spontaneity and organic qualities 
inherent in forging red-hot metals?" 

Working with steel also necessitates 
working outdoors, so being able to do 
the lion's share of the designing in the 
warmth of his home is an advantage 
during cold Ohio winters. He used CAD 
software to design the sculptures. The 
first sculpture in the four-part series 
was the Mandala in Transformation, 
which was designed on the computer 
first, then worked on outside. 

"As I was doing the sculpture, 1 was 
consciously open to altering the design 
for some spontaneity" he says. "1 began 
to develop a visual concept of the piece 
and reversed the process." 

The second in the series, Mandala in 
Transformation 11, was altered halfway 
through on the computer For the third, 
Caregiver, Fordyce forged the sculpture 
entirely by hand, then went back and 
designed it on the Atari- Finally, the 

Mandala in Trans- 
formation I os seen 
on the ST's screen. 

fourth, Grasp For Life, was done com- 
pletely by hand. 

"I came full circle," he said. "I started 
with total CAD, then worked my way 

Fordyce is very involved with the 
whole process of the artist and the 
computer, and is putting together a 
video that will introduce a panel of 
artists to discuss the topic of sculpture 
and computers. 

"I have several of the world's most fa- 
mous sculptors from all over the United 
States and Canada," he says. 

Like Anderson and Badgley, Fordyce 
counts among the Atari ST's assets its 
affordability and the flexibility and 

ease-of-use of the Cyber series. "It is the 
easiest to use, and blending 3D graphics 
with color is easy on the ST," he says. 
"It brings meaningful 3D graphics to 
anyone who wants to use it. The possi- 
bilities are almost limitless." 

One limitless opportunity involves 
animating a stainless steel sculpture 
Something about that 3D imaging just 
brings out the cartoonist in these artists. 
Fordyce says, "There's never enough 
time to do everything I have ideas 
for." ■ 

Heather Leitch is a San Francisco-based 
business, high-tech and feature writer. 
This is her first publication in START. 

START The ST Monthly 23 

Unleash Your 

Design the game of 
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Move and animate up to 15 sprites at 
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Add a musical soundtrack which plays 
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Define up to 16 different types of scrolling areas 
Create pull-down menus with one command 
Grab the sprites from your favorite games 
Compact Neochrome or Degas screens - or even sections 
of screens 

Convert your ST into the ulti- 
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This 2-Disk 
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Graphic Editor/ 

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Printer options 
LINK feature enables 
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Over 120 different 
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Loading screen option 
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Look for these game and 
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Art and Animation. • . 
Made Powerful 

Unispec, Art and Film Director and Cyber Paint 2.0 

by Marcus Badgley 

Finally, Atari users are getting what they 
deserve: better, more powerful software. 
Being an artist who bought an ST when it 
first came out, I have waited a long time 
for programs like these! 

This review looks at three great new 
programs for the ST/Mega series com- 
puters. Unispec, Art and Film Director 
and Cyber Paint 2.0 all reflect how far 
we've come since NEOchrome and 
DEGAS marked the STs artistic vanguard. 
These newcomers include basic drawing 
tools, block functions and antialiasing as 
standard. What's important here are the 
special effects and animation capabilities. 
Each package is well thought out, 
complete and functional. Though there 
are similarities, each program approaches 
drawing and animation in its own 
unique way. 

Unispec— 512 Colors and More 

Unispec, our first program up to bat, is 
an enhanced version of Spectrum 512. In 
fact, you must have Spectrum 512 to 
"create" Unispec. It was designed as a 
desk accessor)' to be used alone or in 
harmony with other programs. Its func- 
tion as a desk accessor)' is to provide 512 
color enhancement and manipulation to 
16 color images, as well as converting 512 

Unispec is on up- 
grade of Spectrum 
512 with several 
unique features. Its 
512-color palette 
allows an artist to 
Imitate life (or mov- 
ies). Note how the 
foreground charac- 
ter is brought out 
from the background 
in this test picture 
from "Universillion." 

color art to 16 colors to be "e> 
back to the host program. In fact, this 
feature works so well that I thought it 
wasn't even working- it's that good! 

Unispec works with many programs 
that make full or partial use of GEM. Be- 
cause Unispec is so large and powerful, 
several tutorials are included in the man- 
ual on creating the working parameters 
between Unispec and other programs. 
Among the programs compatible with 
Unispec are: DEGAS Elite, CAD-3D, 
Cyber Faint, NEOchrome, ST BASIC, GFA 
BASIC, 1ST Word and WordWriter ST (as 
1 write this review 1 am accessing 
Unispec constantly to check certain fea- 

tures). With most GEM programs, access 
to Unispec is through one of five buttons, 
listed in the DESK file, which let you en- 
ter Unispec directly or transfer informa- 
tion into it. Blocks, color palettes or full 
screens can be imported to Unispec. 

Besides being the Spectrum 512 that 
I've come to know and love, Unispec 
adds many new functions. It includes 
animation and makes detailed improve- 
ments over its predecessor In terms of 
functions, Unispec has increased its 
computer-assisted effects. The addition of 
"dithering," which by mixing two or 
more colors and interlacing them creates 
the illusion of more colors, is great! This ► 

START The ST Monthly 25 

Review Art & Animation 

optional effect, used with Blur and the 
Block functions, can be quite beautiful. 
It's also a partial cure for the "super jag- 
gies" normally created when enlarging 
a block. 

Speaking of blocks, Unispec's block 
functions offer ADD, SUBTRACT and 
AVERAGE in addition to Replace. All four 
options can be pasted in either transpar- 
ent or opaque modes, creating a total of 
eight modes. These new modes act ex- 
actly as their name describes. ADD will 
add all the pixels' RGB values of the 
block with those of the destination pixels, 
creating a darker area. SUBTRACT sub- 
tracts the RGB values and AVERAGE 
averages the pixels. These new block 
modes can produce astounding results. 
Different effects can be created, such as 
the illusion of transparency-like being 
outside and seeing someone through a 
window while the trees and sky are 
reflected in the window, or a ghost float- 
ing through a wall. Each of these modes 
has adjustable strengths which determine 
how much pixels are altered. 

Blocks can also be rotated in 
90-degree increments. You can now paste 
blocks with antialiasing, so the crisp 
edges surrounding a pasted block can be 
softened or blended into the background. 
This feature is so complex, however, that I 
got lost in the tutorial and decided to 
pass. If I need that feature later I'll brave 
the manual again. 

New "No Zag" functions can control 
how a No Zag line is drawn or redrawn 
precisely! In addition to Replace (an 
onginal Spectrum mode), colors can be 
added or subtracted when intersecting 
other colors. A new line cache stores in- 
formation about each No Zag line, ena- 
bling lines to be redrawn later The line 
cache can store up to 500 points. Though 
there is a Line Pointer which activates 
specific lines, I found this function 
confusing-a sort of hit-or-miss situation. 

A new readout display occupies the 
spaces to the left and right of the mag- 
nification window. Shown here are 
mouse coordinates, RGB values, antialias 

mode and breadth, airbrush flow rate 
and line cache pointer to name but a few. 
Actually, there's so much information here 
that 1 had to keep referring to the manual 
for clarification. 

Other improvements: Fill to New now 
works in No Zag mode Colors can be 
changed to black. Also included is a user- 
definable snap feature which allows for 
any rectangular shape or square grid. The 
time needed for antialias analysis is down 
from six seconds to one second. 

A new magnification mode displays 
the current brush. In the original Spec- 
trum 512 it's impossible to tell what is 
eliminated by a large brush. You can now 
merge color palettes in the Custom pal- 
ette These small features in addition to 
the new features make Unispec a real im- 
provement over Spectrum 512. 

Unispec is for 

artists committed to 

their craft who 

want to take that 

commitment to 

another level. 

Unispec's animation capabilities are 
short but sweet: we're talking straightfor- 
ward 512-color flip-book-style animation. 
After an image is created, it is saved and 
then altered a bit. This new image is then 
saved as a "delta," meaning that the 
difference between two frames is saved, 
resulting in much smaller files. These 
deltas represent the frames. Unispec has 
a separate program used to create se- 
quences of deltas. The process of creating 
any detailed animation with Unispec is a 
time-consuming process at best. However, 
if you're looking for full-color animation 
this is the program for you. 

Since Unispec is a desk accessory it 
doesn't need the basic drawing tools 
commonly found on other paint pro- 
grams. By offering immediate 512-color 
enhancement and comprehensive tools to 
use those colors, Unispec more than 
makes up for what it lacks. It's animation 
capabilities maybe tedious and minimal, 
but it's important to remember that no 
other program offers 512-color animation 
for the ST and Mega-which are designed 
to display only 16. 

Overall, I enjoy using Unispec. The 
colorful results are worth the effort and 
frustration of dealing with such a com- 
plex interface I feel that die designers at 
Trio could have used GEM more and 
redesigned Unispec's interface to be easier 
to use 

Because Unispec is not marketed as a 
"legitimate" upgrade of Spectrum 512, you 
need to refer to two manuals, which 
makes the program harder to leam. I 
must point out that it will take dedication 
and hard work to really master many of 
Unispec's new and old functions so that 
you know what the result will be. 
Unispec is for the serious ST artist who 
has made a commitment to his or her 
craft and wants to take that commitment 
to another level. 

Art and Film Director: Two Programs 
in One 

Count 'em! One! Two! This dual package 
is geared to produce static or animated 
artwork. Because the creation of images is 
the first step to animation, we'll look at 
the 'Art" aspect first. This drawing/paint 
program is equipped with all the ex- 
pected tools, plus several fun special 
effect features. 

The work area is clean, with a small, 
movable toolbox and a message readout 
at the top of the screen. The toolbox in- 
cludes such utensils as pencil, brush, fill, 
text, a NEOchrome-like zoom box and 
color palette Left-clicking on a tool acti- 
vates it, while right-clicking can bring up 
detailed controls for customizing a 
specific tool. 

26 March 1989 

Art and Film Direc- 
tor from Epyx is an 
animation studio in a 
box. There are two 
separate programs 
with eel animation 
and tweening capa- 
bilities, unique paint 
functions and even 
sound dubbing. 

There are eight zoom levels, 32 
brushes, filled or hollow squares, rectan- 
gles, circles, ovals, mirror and user- 
defined snap. You can use rectangular, 
oval or freehand blocks. Besides just 
moving and pasting a block can be re- 
sized, stretched, distorted, rotated, bulged, 
bent or altered to a specific perspective - 
and then used as a brush! 

The array of tools also includes smear, 

scrape, melt, shade, xcolor (which ex- 
changes colored elements of one drawing 
to another), oudine, round off (anrialias) 
and window. This last feature creates a 
boundary' for tools and effects to work 
within. On the quirky side are two tools, 
one which creates circular sprites which 
bounce around the screen indefinitely; 
the other grabs portions of an image and 
animates them in a revolving manner 

The setup comprises one main screen, 
another direcdy behind that- and an- 
other 14 in memory. It's set up this way 
because many of the special effects tools 
transfer information between the main 
screen and the one "behind" it. The 
Scratch function can be used to scratch 
through one drawing to reveal parts of the 
one underneath -quite unique! Other 
functions will bring elements of one color 
from the bottom screen to the top; and, 
of course all 16 screens can be swapped. 
For mixing color there's a modified RGB 
slider that allows for color changes, swaps 
and changes in position, as well as an in- 
vert function that changes all the present 
colors to their exact opposite This creates 
color possibilities that you wouldn't nor- 
mally consider Drawings can also be 
viewed in monochrome which is great 
for studying composition and movement. 
Art director also supports color cycling, 
utilizing up to eight palettes. An Director 
can send images to the printer, with 
numerous options to choose from, in- ► 



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Review Art & Animation 

eluding the ability to rescale an image 

I was pleasantly surprised by this 
drawing program. The layout is well 
thought out with attention to ease of use 
Art Director had all the tools 1 needed 
and its unique features made new op- 
tions available There's not a lot to critique 
here, though I'd like to see greater ac- 
curacy when altering blocks, more color 
tools and better, faster antialiasing 

Without intermission, we arrive at 
Film Director, a wonderful, straightfor- 
ward animation program. The layout and 
concept are carried over from Art Direc- 
tor, making the intuitive operation easier 
The creators of Art Director and Film 
Director have approached animation in 
an entirely different way from the 
Unispec creators. Employing the same 
process used in traditional eel animation, 
Film Director builds an animation from 
the ground up. In eel animation, each 
character object, foreground and back- 
ground is created separately on its own 
eel. To create each frame one or more 
eels are stacked together and pho- 
tographed. The result after a series of 
frames is an animation. 

In Film Director, the whole process 
begins by creating Patterns, which are im- 
ages clipped from artwork made in Art 
Director A pattern can be anything from 
a small body part to a block of color The 
Patterns, as well as Polygons, can be used 
as eels in a frame, or used together as a 
Group-really several Patterns and Poly- 
gons used as one eel. 

The next step is creating Actors, or 
mini-sequences of action made with 
multiple eels. An example of an Actor 
could be a person running or a flag rip- 
pling. Film Director speeds up the proc- 
ess of animating by using "tweening" For 
instance you can move a character across 
the screen easily by designating a starting 
and ending point and the number of 
frames needed. The computer creates the 
in-between frames needed to move the 
character Tweening can be applied to Pat- 
terns, polygons, groups, actors and even 

Let's say we want to animate a person 
walking across the screen. First create the 
person in Art Director piece by piece, 
along with any backgrounds or fore- 
grounds. (By "piece by piece" 1 mean not 
only each section of the body that would 
move, but the different positions.) Then 
import the images to Film Director The 
parts, or Patterns, will be assembled into 
a series of whole figures (Groups) in 
different stages of walking. Then each of 
those stages will be linked together to 
form the Actor, which in turn is laid over 
a background, and voih: we've got our 

The only word that 

expresses Cyber 

Paint's Pixel F/X is 


Cels can be layered in many ways to 
appear in front of or behind others and 
no eel can be placed behind a back- 
ground. A limited text feature lets you 
add words to your animations as well. 

What makes Film Director so great to 
use is its simplicity. Most of the work is 
involved in creating the artwork in Art 
Director; assembly in Film Director is the 
easy part. Film Director comes with 
several demo animations, one of which is 
used in the tutorials. The step-by-step 
tutorial is very clear; halfway through it, it 
suddenly dawned on me how simple it 
all is. The step-by-step process is very 
easy and understandable 

Film Director can use up to eight color 
palettes, creating the illusion of more 
colors. You can also add music to an ani- 
manon and the program supplies an ar- 
ray of prerecorded "emphasis" sounds 
which can be installed at specific points. 
Film Director also supports video record- 
ing units for taping animations, as well as 

the ability to print any frame 

Neither Art Director nor Film Director 
can be used with any desk accessories 
active, and though the manual said I 
could load both programs into my hard 
disk, I never succeeded. Since the 
designers of this dynamic duo want you 
to use their program, support of 
DEGAS/NEOchrome is minimal. A sepa- 
rate program for two-way conversion is 
included, yet this feels like an after- 

But what a great package! These two 
programs come up with the goods. In 
one sense Film Director would be better 
if it had more advanced features that 
might animate CAD-3D objects or appear 
to move images back and forth in space, 
as opposed to across the screen. However, 
our next program more than fills the gaps 
left by Unispec and Art Director/Film 

Cyber Paint: The Next Generation 

Cyber Paint 2.0! Jim Kent has certainly 
been hard at work creating personal bests 
for us artists and animators. In his latest 
version of Cyber Paint he brings to Atari 
ST animation what Unispec brings to 
ST color 

Here we have an excellent program 
that's powerful, flexible and innovative At 
its simplest level, Cyber Paint 2.0 is a 
great paint program; at its most complex 
level. . . I don't know. The animation pos- 
sibilities are endless. Being akin to 
Unispec in offering so many features, 
there's a lot to know about Cyber Paint 
2.0. However, unlike Unispec, the inter- 
face is very well-constructed and every- 
thing has both screen and keyboard 

The program now comes on two disks 
and includes a new player program. New 
features include Pixel F/X and Color F/X. 
With Color F/X, different palettes can be 
used for each frame, opening up many 
possibilities. Colors can be tweened, to 
fade in and out automatically, or blended 
together, acting as transitions from scene 
to scene Entire moods and lighting at- 

28 March 1989 

Cyber Point 2.0 lets 
animation on your 
ST. Version 2.0 added 
□ wealth of features 
to its predecessor, 
including a separate 

fades, color trans- 
forms and other 
effects easy. 

mosphere can be dramatized or altered 
by altering the color scheme. And, of 
course, no paint program would be com- 
plete without color cycling. 

More professional -looking special 
effects can be found in the Pixel F/X 
menu, which includes such features as 
Defocus (Blur), Shatter, Antialias, Crystal- 
ize, Outline, Tile and Unrez (which 
decreases the screen resolution by two). 
Many of these options can be Tweened 
over several frames. Ripple and Buzz will 
animate portions of an image like a wave 
The tile option will multiply an image to 
occupy a whole screen -when animated, 
row upon row of movement occurs. The 
only word that expresses Pixel F/X 
is "Wow!" 

A traveling mask has been added al- 
lowing sequences of frames to become 
transparent animated "holes." It can be 
used to create animated drop shadows 
and other effects including the illusion of 

Like Unispec, the upgraded Cyber 
Paint 2.0 makes detailed improvements 
over its predecesor A clipped image can 
be pasted below another image, the coor- 
dinates of which are now displayed in 
the Zoom window The Frame mode now 
has Separate Many, which replaces colors 
in many frames, as opposed to just one 

In the APM (Antic Pixel Mover) F/X, 
images can be manipulated to move off 
the screen! For Load/Save enhancements 
we have a splice option for .SEQ files 

only, which appends one animation to 
another For greater control of rime-related 
functions there are now three different 
Frame Modes. These affect either the 
present frame, specified segments or all 

Overall, there are so many other tools 
and options here that the ability to create 
and control animated action is truly 
amazing. Cyber Paint 2.0 is like Industrial 
Light and Magic in a box! 

Now that 1 have finished reviewing 
these products, I can't wait to do some 
animating of my own. My only problem 
now is deciding which program to use. ■ 

Artist Marcus Badglcy is the owner and 
director of Gravity Design, a graphic de- 
sign studio in San Francisco. 


Cyber Paint 2.0, $79.95 
(Upgrade from Cyber 
Paint 1.0, $25) and Spec- 
trum 512, S69.95. Antic 

Software, 544 Second Street, 
San Francisco, CA 94107, 
(BOO) 234-700L 

Art and Film Director, 

$79.95. Epyx, Inc., Dept 12, 
2995 Woodside Road, Sure 
400-383, Woodside, CA 
94062, (408) 848-3042. 

Unispec, $49.95, requires 

Spectrum 512. Trio Engineer- 
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#57 - Tease Mb Adult Animation (Color Only) 
#145 ■ Five Children's Programs (Color Only) 
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START The ST Monthly 29 







RftV U 












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You may think that you don't need another paint program. 
Well, take a look at SEURAT! It's an amazing painting, 

drawing, and all-around pixel-bashing program written 
in (are you ready?) GFA BASIC 2.0. Even if you have a 
library full of graphics programs, you need SEURAT. It 

runs in all resolutions on any ST/Mega with one megabyte 
of memory or more! 

by Sterling K. Webb 

30 March 1989 

Look out, DEGAS Elite! Move over 
Cyber Paint! Now there's 
SEURAT-file SEURAT.ARC on your 

START disk. 

In the beginning, there were DEGAS and 
NEOchrome 0.6. Then, DEGAS begat 
DEGAS Elite and NEOchrome 0.6 begat 
NEOchrome 1.0. And the graphics pro- 
grams for the ST have kept on coming 
for three years. And now there's 
SEURAT, inspired by Georges Pierre 
Seurat (1859-1891), the French pointil- 
list artist and "Father of the Pixel." 
If you've worked with other ST 
graphics programs, like DEGA5 Elite or 
NEOchrome, you'll find SEURAT's user 
interface very intuitive. If you haven't, 
you'll have fun exploring SEURAT's 
myriad functions. There are even a cou- 
ple things you haven't seen before. 

Getting Started 

Because of SEURAT's size and the need 
for a full manual, it took a bit of doing 
to fit all of the files on the START disk. 
Before you read on, please read the 
sidebar accompanying this article for 
specific instructions on how to handle 
the various files. And if you're un- 
familiar with un-ARCing programs, be 
sure to read the general Disk Instruc- 
tions elsewhere in this issue 

After loading SEURAT, the title screen 
appears followed by the main menu 
from which you select the paint 

Diving In 

Like other graphics programs, SEURAT 
contains the usual "primitives" - basic 
shapes and lines. On the left side of the 

main menu there is a series of function 
buttons. Looking down the stack of but- 
tons on the left of the main menu, you 
can see that SEURAT has graphic primi- 
tives, like line, polyline (which also 
produces polygons), circle and disk 
(which can be ellipses), boxes and 
solids (square and round-comered), ray 
drawing, plus the O-Box and O-Circle 
functions. There is also an area fill and 
a multi- function airbrush, that stipples 
as well as sprays. 

The most basic function of a drawing 
program is free-hand drawing. Looking 
at the main menu, you'll notice that the 
BRUSH button is highlighted, and that 
the one-pixel brush box on the right 
side of the screen is outlined. That 
means you're almost ready to start 

First, click on the INK button; this 
specifies that you want to draw with a 
solid color rather than a fill pattern. 
Now, select a color by clicking on one of 
the palette display boxes just above the 
INK button. Try a few other colors. No- 
tice that the cursor changes color to re- 
mind you of your color selection. 

You'll be using right mouse clicks to 
flip from the main menu to a paint 
screen and back again. (You can also 
use the Escape key.) So, let's flip over to 
an empty paint screen 

On the paint screen, you won't see 
the aiTOW cursor anymore, nor the 
brush you selected. What you will see is 
a big "register mark," four arms that 
point to a common center Press the left 
mouse button and move the mouse; the 
brush cursor disappears and the brush 
paints. Release the left mouse button 

and the register mark cursor returns. 

This "register mark" cursor is large 
enough to let you position even single 
pixels with accuracy, and, because it's 
xor'ed to the screen, it remains visible 
regardless of the color of the screen be- 
neath it. 

Before we flip back to the main 
menu, press the Help key The palette 
display pops up on the paint screen 
and the arrow cursor reappears, letting 
you select another color Click the right 
mouse button to remove the palette dis- 
play from the screen and you can then 
resume drawing. 

Assuming that you're satisfied with 
what you've drawn so far, press the In- 
sert key to "fix" your work to the 
screen. Now, as an experiment, make 
one more stroke with the brush, then 
press the Undo key. SEURAT's Undo 
function will remove all work done on a 
screen since the last fix was done with 
the Insert key. Any time you want to 
keep your work as you progress through 
a drawing, simply press the Insert key. 

Now, let's flip back to the main menu 
and look at some of those other 

SEURAT's Functions 

Besides the one-pixel brush we've just 
doodled with, SEURAT has 35 other 
brushes. All 36 work in both solid (ink) 
colors and infill patterns. You can also 
have up to six simultaneous user- 
defined multi-colored brushes, that can 
be composed of any or all available 
colors in the palette. (These can be 
saved and loaded to/from disk by 
double-clicking on any brush box.) ► 

START The ST Monthly 31 

SEURAT lets you 
moke a flog rippling 
in the breeze more 
easily than Betsy 
Ross. The block 
manipulation func- 
tions in SEURAT are 

Around the boundary of the Menu 
Screen, you'll see that SEURAT provides 
92 fill patterns (46 each in color and 
monochrome). The selected fill pattern 
is shown on the left side of the screen 
just below the functions buttons. 
Double-click on the COLOR or MONO 
buttons and the fill editor will appear 
letting you modify existing fills in a va- 
riety of ways or create your own. Fills 
can also be stored to and loaded from 
disk from the fill editor. 

SEURAT provides up to eight paint 
screens (the exact number depends on 
the available memory) and each screen 
,. has its own color palette Paint screens 


(or just their palettes) can be copied be- 
tween screens, and a palette editor al- 
lows you to alter your palette, swap 
colors, and load or save palettes. 

SEURAT lets you carry out all graphic 
operations in the four write modes 
available on the ST; overwrite, transpar- 
ent, xor, or reverse transparent. Block 
operations can also be performed in re- 
verse transparent, not transparent, and 
in any of the 16 logical combination 
modes of GEM, making a total of 21 
block copying modes. You can also 
make a mask from a block and modify 
and copy it, also in 21 modes. 

The text function allows for re- 
sizeable type in a variety of text styles 
in all four write modes and gives you 
access to the full ST 256-character 
ASCII set. 

You can set and unset GEM's clip- 
ping function, creating (invisible) win- 
dows which put a boundary on your 
graphic operations. Updating and undo- 
ing the screen is totally in your control, 
although you can put it on automatic if 
you want. 

Besides merely copying blocks, you 
can also manipulate them. They can be 
resized, rotated, skewed, arced to a 
cylindrical shape, distorted to any con- 
tour you draw, or distorted trapezoidally, 
even folded over or wrapped to hyper- 
bolic sheets, if that's what you want. 
Blocks can also be stored to and loaded 
from disk. 

SEURAT performs geometrical trans- 
formations on entire screens: flipping 
or inverting them, rotating portions of 
them, with four-way mirror operations 
and four scrolling shifts. 

SEURAT can remap the color assign- 
ment of pixels over an entire screen or 
only over a portion of a screen, for any 
number of colors at once. 

SEURAT has a specialized Zoom- 
screen that functions at 4X to 10X (20X 
in monochrome). The Zoomscreen has 
a wide variety of specialized features, 
including the capability to zoom a 
screen area in two modes: with pixels 
merged (solid) or separated (mosaic), as 
well as gridded (like electronic graph- 
paper) or non-gridded. On the Zoom- 
screen, you can draw with both right 
and left mouse buttons in different 

colors. (Very handy in monochrome!) 

SEURAT loads images in the original 
formats and saves them in DEGAS for- 
mat. You can get a file directory, change 
drives, delete files, or format disks from 
within the program. SEURAT allows ac- 
cess to desk accessories and even main- 
tains a logbook of which filenames were 
loaded into which paint screens or were 
last copied to other screens, in case you 
get lost like 1 do. 

Button by Button: 
What SEURAT Can Do 

The command structure of a large and 
complex program like SEURAT can be a 
little overwhelming at first, but take 
heart! The SEURAT.DOC file on your 
START disk contains a complete user's 
manual that explains in detail each 
function of the program and how to use 
them all. 

For quick reference, the following is a 
button-by-button list of SEURAT's many 

Main Menu, Primary Controls 

• Click the right mouse button or 
press Escape to toggle back and forth 
between the main menu and the 
paint screen 

tons to select the write mode 

• Click on function buttons to select 
paint or text function. 

• Click on brush box to select brush 
shape and brush paint function. 

" Click on INK to switch between 
solid color and fill. 
(INK On = solid drawing color; INK 
Off = draw using fill pattern) 

• Single-click on CLIP to limit paint 
functions to clipped area. (CLIP On 
= Draw only in clip area (except 
block functions); CLIP Off = draw 
anywhere-no clipping) 

• Double-click on CLIP to set clip area. 

• Click on AUTO to "fix" paint screens 
automatically. (AUTO On = auto- 

32 March 1989 

matic screen fixing when flipping 
back to main menu) 
Click on paint screen boxes (A 
through H) to switch paint screens. 
Click on fill patterns in border to se- 
lect fill. 

Click on COLOR to select color fill 
patterns (on color monitor). 
Click on MONO to select mono fill 

Single-click on palette display to se- 
lect drawing color 
Double-click on palette display to 
call palette editor 
Press Clr/Home to flip to Zoom- 

Move sliders and arrows to shift view 
window.(high and medium resolu- 
tion only) 

Click on MENU to call pop-up menu 
(See below). 

Double-click on MENU to access 
desk accessories. 

Other Main Menu Commands 

• Double-click on BLOCK to use a 
block as a brush. (select brush first, 
then double-click on block) 

• Double-click on TEXT to call text 


• Double-click on user-defined brush 
to call brush editor. 

• Double-click on current paint screen 
selector box to copy screen. 

• Double-click on current paint screen 
selector box with Alternate key held 
down to import palette. 

• Double-click on highest paint screen 
selector box with control key held 
down to deactivate screen and free 

• Double-click on left color palette box 
to swap colors and reverse the paint 
screen colors (MONO only) 

" Double-click on left color palette box 
with Alternate key held down to 
swap colors without reversing the 
paint screen colors (MONO only). 

Pop-Up Menu 

• Erase erases the currently selected 
paint screen. 

• Zoom flips to Zoomscreen (same as 
the Clr/Home key). 

• File calls the file dialog box. (Load 
image, Save image. Delete file, Set 
drive, Format disk) 

• Block Menu calls the block manipu- 
lation menu. 

• Transforms calls the transforms 

• Color Map calls the color map dialog 

• Quit exits SEURATCAIways quit 
SEURAT by way of the Quit option!) 

• Escape changes frame color while 
mouse is on menu. 

Paint Screen Commands 

Note: The following applies to all paint 
functions unless otherwise noted. 

• Cursor shape: up arrow shows draw- 
ing color, down arrow to define ► 

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Zoomscreen area, register mark if us- 
ing a brush, box for text. 

• Press Help key to bring up palette 
display to select color; click right 
mouse button to resume. 

• Press 1 (overwrite), 2 (transparent), 
3 (xor), or 4 (reverse trans.) to set 
write mode. 

• Press C or c to show clipping area; 
click right mouse button to resume. 

• Press Insert to update ("fix") paint 

• Press Undo to undo screen back to 
last update. 

• Press Fl (paint screen A), F2 (paint 
screen B), etc. to switch paint 

• Press Clr/Home to zoom. 

• Click right mouse button or press 
Escape key to flip to main menu and 
back again. 

Block Functions 

Note: The mouse cursor will be the 
block if one has been selected or a full- 
screen crosshair when selecting a block. 
If you have defined a block, be sure to 
use the right mouse button rather than 
the Escape key to flip back to the main 

• Press Escape to select new block; 
define a block by dragging a box 
around it. 

• Click left mouse button to place a 

• Click left mouse button with Contol 
key held down to place a block mask 

• Press Undo to remove placed blocks 
in reverse order in which they were 

• Press Backspace to clear block undo 

• Press 1, 2, 3, or 4 to select write 
mode (overwrite, transparent, xor, or 
reverse transparent). 

• In Mode 4, click left mouse button 
with Alternate key held down to se- 
lect not transparent mode. 

■ Press A, B, C, D through P to select 
GEM Modes 0-15 for next block 

Setting Up Your SEURAT Program Disk 

SEUPvAT consists of seven archive 
files on your START disk. To set up a 
working program disk, you will need 
to follow these special instructions. If 
you are a new ST owner, read the 
sections in your Atari user's manual 
on how to format disks and copy 
files before continuing. Be sure to 
back up (make a working copy of) 
your START disk before doing any- 
thing else There may be a file on your 
START disk called README.DOC; if 
so, double-click on it and click on 
Show for last- minute information on 

If you have a single-sided drive, 
you will need three blank, formatted 
disks for SEURAT. One is for the pro- 
gram, one is for data and the other is 
for the documentation; label them 
appropriately. If you have a double- 
sided drive, format a double-sided 
disk for all of SEURAT's files. If you 
have a hard drive, you may want to 
create a special folder for SEURAT. 

ARCX.TTP onto the documentation 
disk. Double-click on ARCX.TTP and 
type the filename SEURDOCS.ARC 
in the box that comes up on screen. 
Your drive's LED light will come on 
and messages on screen will tell you 
which files are being un-ARCed, 
When the Desktop screen returns, 
the directory window should show 
the SEURAT documentation file 
(SEURAT.DOC), the program 
listing, TYPE.LST If these files are 
not on the disk, try un-ARCing 
SEURDOCS.ARC again; you may 
have misspelled the filename. 

To view the documentation, 
double-click on TYPE.PRG and se- 
lect SEURAT.DOC when the file 
selector box comes up on screen. 
This program lets you view the file. 
To scroll through the file, use the up 

and down arrow keys to move a page 
at a time or the right and left arrow 
keys to move a line at a time. To 
move to the beginning of the file, 
press Clr/Home; to move to the end, 
press the Insert key. Press Undo to 
return to the Desktop. To print out 
the SEURAT documentation, double- 
click on SEURAT.DOC from the 
Desktop and then click on Print. The 
documentation is quite long, so be 
sure you have plenty of paper in 
your printer. 


Now you're ready to create your 
SEURAT program disk. Copy 
your program disk and un-ARC 
SEURAT.ARC as you did the docu- 
mentation. When un-ARCed, you 
SEURAT.DAT and a utility program 
called CVERTEIL.BAS. Now delete 
SEURAT.ARC from your program 
disk; it is no longer necessary and 
you will need extra room on this 
disk. Do not delete anything from ei- 
ther your original START disk or your 
backup disk. Copy GFABASRO.ARC 
onto the program disk an un-ARC it. 

On your SEURAT data disk create 
five folders, or subdirectories, for 
SEURAT's numerous data files. Make 
sure that your SEURAT data disk's 
window is open on the Desktop; if 
there is more than one window on 
the Desktop, click on it to make it 
the active window. Now select New 
Folder from the Desktop's File drop- 
down menu. Type in BRUSHES and 
press Return. The new folder icon 
will be in the directory window. Re- 
peat the procedure to create folders 

Double-click on the BRUSHES 
continues on page 36 

34 March 1989 

placement only. 

• Press Help key to toggle "floater" 
overwrite/ transparent display 
(MONO only). 

Text Functions 

Note: write mode must be selected on 
menu screen, not with the keyboard. 
Flip back to main menu with the right 
mouse button, not the Escape key. 

• Input text with keyboard. 

• When in text mode over a paint 
screen, press the cursor up arrow 
key to call the text dialog. 

• When in text mode over a paint 
screen, press the cursor down arrow 
key to call full ASCII character set. 

• Press Escape to clear a line of text. 

• Press Backspace to delete character 
to left of cursor. 

• Click left mouse button to place text 
and then clear text from cursor 

• Click left mouse button with Alter- 
nate key held down to place text 

You can load, save 
and edit blocks, 
brushes, fills and 
palettes in SEURAT. 
This is the fill editor 
with one of the 92 
included fills shown. 

without clearing it. 

Press Undo to undo paint screen 

back to last update. 

Press Insert to "fix" screen. 



Click left button to fill area. 
Click right mouse button or press 
the Escape key to flip to main menu. 

Click left mouse button to set center. 
Subsequent left mouse button clicks 
or drag will draw rays. 
Click the right mouse button to can- 
cel current center; click the left 
mouse button to set a new center. 
Click right mouse button twice to re- 
turn to main menu (or press Escape 
key). > 

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• Click left mouse button to set start- 
ing point. 

• Click again to set ending point and 
draw line. 

• Click right mouse button to cancel 
starting point. 

• Click right mouse button twice to re- 
turn to main menu (or press Escape 


• Click left mouse button to set start- 
ing point. 

• Click again to set additional points. 

• Click right mouse button to connect 
last set point to starting point. 

• Click left mouse button with Alter- 
nate key held down to set starting 
point and draw filled figure. 

• Click right mouse button twice to 
return to main menu (or press 
Escape key). 

Box and Solid 

Note: A box is an outline figure and a 
solid is a filled figure. 

• Click left mouse button to set start- 
ing point. 

• Drag box to desired size or click 
right mouse button to cancel. 

• Click left mouse button again to 
print box or solid figure. 

• Click left mouse button while hold- 
ing down Alternate key to set starting 
point and draw round-cornered 

• Click right mouse button twice to re- 
turn to main menu (or press Escape 

Ellipse, Circle and Disk 

Note: A circle is an outline figure and a 
disk is a filled figure 

• Click left mouse button to set start- 
ing point. 

• Drag circle/box to desired size or 
click right mouse button to cancel. 

• Click left mouse button again to 
print ellipse, circle or disk. 

• Click right mouse button to ter- 

Setting Up Your SEURAT Program Disk, continued 

folder This will bring up the empty 
BRUSHES directory window. Copy 
into this directory ARCX.TTP and 
BRUSHES.ARC. Finally, un-ARC 
BRUSHES.ARC as usual. This will 
cause the files in BRUSHES.ARC to 
un-ARC directly into the folder. When 
you are finished, delete BRUSHES.ARC 
and ARCX.TTP from the BRUSHES 
folder and click on the close box in 
the upper-left hand corner of the 
window. This will bring you back 
to the root directory of the SEURAT 
data disk. 

Double-click on the COLRHLL 
folder icon and copy ARCX.TTP and 
COLRF1LL.ARC into it. As before, 
un-ARC COLRFILL.ARC, delete 
return to the root directory by click- 
ing on the close window. Repeat this 
procedure for MONOFILL.ARC and 
PALETTES.ARC There is no archive 
file for BLOCKS, but you can use this 
folder to store your own blocks. 

Ready to Go 

Now you're finally ready to run 
SEURATI Put the program disk in 
the drive and double-click on 
GFABASRO.PRG and select 
SEURAT.BAS. In a few seconds you'll 
see SEURAT's main menu screen. 
Now you can start creating your ar- 
tistic masterpieces. Be sure to refer to 
the button-by-button quick reference 
list in the SEURAT article and the 
SEURAT.DOC documentation file so 
you won't miss out on any of this 
program's myriad features. If you 
want to load or save fill patterns, 
brushes or palettes, put the data disk 
in drive B (or take out the program 
disk and put the data disk in drive A 
after SEURAT has loaded). If you have 
any DEGAS fill patterns you want to 
use in SEURAT, you can convert them 

using the conversion program on the 
disk. Double-click on GFABASRO.PRG 
and select CVERTF1L.BAS, then fol- 
low the instructions on the screen. 

One final note: SEURAT requires 
a great deal of memory. You must 
have at least one megabyte of mem- 
ory to run it. If you still receive an 
' 'Out of Memory' ' error, disable your 
desk accessories and any RAMdisks 
you may have installed, reboot the 
computer and try again. Have fun 
with SEURAT, and be sure to share 
with us your comments and sugges- 
tions regarding this program. 

Source Code Extravaganza! 

The compiled version of SEURAT 
.was too large to fit on the START 
disk, even in an archive file, so we're 
publishing the tokenized GFA BASIC 
listing and the GFA BASIC run-only 
program instead. (If you own the 
GFA BASIC compiler, we do recom- 
mend that you compile SEURAT as 
this will improve the program's 
speed.) This way we can bring you 
not only a great ST graphics program 
but its complete source code as well! If 
you have MichTron's GFA BASIC 2.0 
interpreter, you can load 
SEURAT.BAS to see just how it works 
and, best of all, you can customize it 
to your heart's content. Since START 
published GFA BASIC 2.0 in January, 
if you don't have the interpreter you 
can order it from us now. The back 
issue magazine with disk is $14.95; 
the disk only (with a quick reference 
command list on disk) is $10.95. You 
can also order the GFA BASIC 2.0 
manual from us for $9.95 plus $3.50 
shipping and handling. Call (800) 
234-7001 to order. ■ 

36 March )9> 


• Click left mouse button while hold- 
ing down Alternate key to set starting 
point and repeat figures with same 
center and shape but different size. 

• Click left mouse button while hold- 
ing down Control key to set starting 
point and repeat figures with same 
size and shape but different centers. 

• Click right mouse button to termi- 
nate. Right mouseclick terminates, 
signals a repeat operation. 

■ Press Escape to return to main 

O-Box and O-Circle 

Note: These figures erase the screen 
area within them as they are drawn. 

• Press and hold the left mouse button 
down and drag to make the figure; 
release button to fix size. 

• Click right mouse button twice to re- 
turn to main menu Cor press Escape 

The zoom Function 
is variable from 4X 
to 20X magnifica- 
tion with a raft of 
well-designed fea- 
tures, like using the 
left mouse button to 
paint with one color 
and the right for a 


• Press and hold left mouse button 
down to paint with the airbrush. 

• Press and hold Control key and left 
mouse button, then drag mouse to 
size the airbrush 

• Press and hold Alternate key and left 
mouse button to produce random 
exchange of pixels within brush area 

• Click right mouse button twice to re- 
turn to main menu (or press Escape 

Zoomscreen Commands 

Note; The cursor arrow shows the 
drawing color or takes the shape of a 
crosshair when the cursor is off the 
zoom display. ► 



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START The ST Monthly 37 

Draw with either left or right mouse 

Click the left mouse button on the 
palette display to set left mouse but- 
ton color 

Click the right mouse button on the 
palette display to set right mouse 

Hold the Alternate key down while 
drawing with the left mouse button 
to change left mouse color pixels to 
right mouse color 
Hold the Alternate key down while 
drawing with the right mouse button 
to change right mouse color pixels to 
left mouse color 
Press Undo to restore work area. 
Press Insert to update restore to cur- 
rent work area. 

Press Clr/Home to return to main 

Press Escape to flip to the set-work 
screen to set new work area. 
Press Fl to toggle grid on and off. 
Press F2 when the cursor is a register 
mark to read absolute coordinates; 
click the nght mouse button to 

Press F3 to toggle 20 X 20 Mode On 
and Off. (20 x 20 Mode allows only 
20 x 20-pixel work area modular to 
screen origin ) 

Press F4 to flood work area with left 
mouse color. (Also, by double-clicking 
on any color in palette display.) 
Press F5 to call the palette editor. 
Press F6 to call the dialog box to set 
mouse parameters lor flicker and 
double click. 

Press F7 to view paint screen; press 
right mouse button or Escape key to 
return to Zoomscreen. (Also, you can 
click the right mouse button in the 
view window to view the paint 

Press F9 to call the file function dia- 
log box. 

Press the Shift and Fl keys to set grid 
color with the left mouse button; 
click the right mouse button to 

Press the Shift and F4 keys to call the 
screen transforms routines. 
Press the Shift and F5 keys to erase 
the entire paint screen. 
Press the Shift and F8 keys to switch 
to another paint screen 
Press the Shift and F9 keys to call the 
color map routines. 
Press the F or f key (in low resolu- 
tion only) to show free memory. 
Press the Z or z key (in low resolu- 
tion only) to show zoom magnifica- 
tion ratio. 

Click on MENU button to call Zoom- 
screen pop-up menu. 

Note that the cursor 
changes color to 

remind you of your 
color selection. 

Zoomscreen View Window Commands 

■ Drag on the view window sliders to 
shift to new work area to be zoomed. 

• Click on the comer arrows to shift 
new work area one pixel at a time. 

• Press the cursor up arrow key to en- 
large new work area to be zoomed. 

• Press the cursor down arrow key to 
shrink new work area to be zoomed. 

• Click on Z-Box to perform mosaic 

• Click on Z-Box with Alternate key 
pressed to perform solid zoom. 
(Note; You must click on highlighted 
Z-Box to perform a zoom.) 

Set Work Screen Commands 

• Click the left mouse button key to 
select minimum work area. 

• Drag the mouse with the left mouse 
button held down to resize work 

area selected. 

• Click or drag with right mouse but- 
ton to position work area selector 
(Both operations must be performed 
the first time on the set work screen; 
subsequently only the right mouse 
button operations are necessary, un- 
less you are resizing the work area.) 

• Press Escape to return to the Zoom- 

Color or Mono Fill Editor 
and Brush Editor 

• Click left mouse button in palette 
display to select color. 

' Use the left mouse button to draw in 
the selected color 

• Use the right mouse button to erase 
(draw in color 0). 

• Press the cursor arrow keys to shift 
the fill pattern one pixel. 

• Click on FLIP to flip pattern left- 
for- right. 

• Click on INVERT to turn pattern 

• Click on LOAD or SAVE to load or 
save patterns to currently selected 
disk drive 

• Double-click on a color to change all 
pixels of the selected color to that 

Palette Editor 

Note: the cursor will have the shape of 
an artist's palette. 

• Click on a color box to select color 

• Click on the RGB or CMY buttons to 
select the Red -Green-Blue or Cyan- 
Magenta-Yellow color systems. 

• Click on the color intensity numbers 
to set colors. 

• Click on VIEW to show paint 
screen; right-click to return. 

• Click on LOAD and SAVE to load 
and save palettes from and to the 

• Click on RESTORE to restore the cur- 
rent palette to the one that existed 
when you entered the palette editor. 

• Double-click on a non-selected color 
to exchange it with the selected color. 

• Click right mouse button twice to re- 
turn to main menu (or press Escape 


File Function Dialog 

(Note; the cursor will have the shape of 
a floppy disk) 

• Load Image File; An image must be 
assigned to a paint screen in assign- 
ment dialog after selection of the file. 

• Any Image File named PICTURE.PI? 
is automatically loaded when 
SEURAT loads. 

• Save Image File saves currently 
selected paint screen in DEGAS for- 
mat (.PI?). 

• Delete Any File deletes any file you 
choose on the selected drive 

• Set Drive selects the drive 

• Format Disk formats a disk in Drive 
A only. 

Block Menu 

The options for the manipulation of 
blocks are; a) Rotate Block, b) Resize 

Block, c) Vertical Freeform Distort, 
d) Vertical Arc Distort, e) Vertical Skew 
Distort, Vertical Trapezoidal Distort, 
g) Horizontal Freeform Distort, h) Hori- 
zontal Arc Distort, i) Horizontal Skew 
Distort, j) Horizontal Trapezoidal Dis- 
tort, k) All-Way Distort, 1) Save Block, 
and m) Load Block. 

• Click the left mouse button to set the 
parameters (see below). 

• Click with the right mouse button to 
commence an operation. 

• After an operation, left-click to repeat 
the operation. 

• Click the right mouse button to 
confirm operation and pull the 

• Press the Undo key to abort and exit 
the routine. 

• To rotate a block, click on the ROTA- 
TION selector box arrows. 

• To resize a block: grab lower-right- 
hand comer of block with left mouse 
button, drag it to a new position, and 
release the left button. 

Press and hold the Alternate key 
while resizing a block to keep the 
same proportions as original. 
Press and hold the Control key while 
resizing a block to keep the same 
scale as the last resize. 
To perform a freeform manipulation, 
drag the mouse while holding the 
left mouse button down. Be careful 
not to drag the orientation line into 
the block. 

To map a block to an arc, drag the 
mouse until the curve between the 
points is the desired shape and then 
click the left mouse button. 
To skew a block, move the mouse 
until the orientation line is as you 
desire, then click the left mouse 

To perform a trapezoidal distort, grab 
and drag the comers of the orienta- 
tion box with the left mouse button. 
Press the Alternate key and the right 
mouse button to fill in holes. 
To perform a distort, grab and drag ^ 




Mouse/Joystick Port Controller 
for the Atari ST 


plus shipping & handling 

Another innovative switchbox that allows you to 
instantly switch between your mouse and joystick 
(or other controller)! It also offers a third joystick 
port so you can plug in your mouse and both 
joysticks with no more frustrating cable swapping. 
Its compact case is attractively styled in a neutral 
gray color and a 2 ft. double-cable is included for 
comfortable use by either right- or left-handers. 



1930 E. Grant Rd., Tucson, AZ 85719 

.53 | g 



STMT The ST Monthly 39 

Fame and Fortune! 

Get Your Work 
Published in START! 

The articles you read in START don't 
grow on trees-they're written by 
dedicated ST users like you! 

We want articles of all kinds: pro- 
gramming tutorials (with accom- 
panying software for our START 
disks), reviews, news, perspectives 
and tips on how to get the most out 
of the ST and Mega computers. 

If you want to have your work 
read by over 75,000 ST owners and 
be well-paid for it, then submit your 
best efforts to us! 

For a free copy of our author 
guidelines, write to: 

Author Guidelines 


544 Second Street 

San Francisco, CA 94107 




Get an answer fast: 



Start Customer Service 

P.O. Box 1569 

Martinez, CA 94553 

the four comers of the orientation 
box. Press the Alternate key and the 
right mouse button to fill in holes. 

• Click on LOAD or SAVE to load a 
block from or save a block to disk. 

Screen Transforms 

• Click the right mouse button to tog- 
gle on and off the menu bar. 

• When highlighted, chain is on; each 
transform is performed on the result 
of previous operation. When chain 
is off, each operation is performed 
on original screen. You can abort a 
series of chained operations by tog- 
gling chain off and on again. 

You'll find SEURAT's 

user interface very 


Click on FLIP to reverse the screen 
from left to right. 

Click on INVERT to turn the screen 

To rotate a screen or portion 90 
degrees clockwise (or counter- 
clockwise), use the full-screen cross- 
hair cursor to locate the top-left cor- 
ner, then drag the mouse, holding the 
left mouse button down, to select an 
area. Holding the Alternate key down 
when selecting from the menu will 
prevent correction for aspect ratio. 
Use the single-line cursor to select 
the reflection point for all mirror 

Press the Escape key to perform mir- 
ror operations around the mid-point 
of the screen. 

Use the cursor arrow keys to shift the 
screen in all scrolling operations. You 
may set the scroll step from one to 
eight pixels. 

routines by selecting EXIT and then 
choosing whether to return with the 
transformed screen ("New Image") or 
abort all changes ("Old Image"). 

Color Mop 

• Click on SOURCE ROW color, then 
on DESTINATION ROW color to re- 
map for any or all colors. 

• The RESET Button cancels and 
redraws the color map dialog box. 

• The WHOLE SCREEN button re- 
maps the entire paint screen. 

• You may select an area to re-map by 
clicking and holding the left mouse 
button while dragging a box around 
the desired area. 

• SELECT AREA may be repeated with 
same settings. 

Low Memory Warning 

Note: A musical noise will alert you 
when the free memory is below 64 
kbytes. To recover memory, clear the 
block undo stack and/or deactivate the 
highest paint screen. 

Though I wrote SEURAT on a one- 
drive 1040ST (never again!), running it 
on a Mega 4 shows that it needs about 
1.2 to 1.4 megabytes of elbow-room 

with eight screens operational. 

The End! 

Whew! That should be sufficient to get 
you started experimenting with 
SEURAT's many features. Consult 
SEURAT.DOC for a full explanation of 

how each feature functions. ■ 

Sterling Webb lives and works in Bun- 
ker Hill, Illinois, a town he describes as 
so small that "the Rotary Club's sign 
says Welcome to Bunker Hill' on both 
sidesi" This is his first program for 

You may I 

; the screen transforms 

40 March 1989 


Games, Games 
And More Games 

by Andre Willey 

Ac this writing, Christmas 1988 is loom- 
ing large on the horizon. Naturally for 
this time of year, new entertainment 
software is the order of the day on the 
European computer scene. 

One company that seems to be 
generating a lot of interest at the mo- 
ment is UBISoft of France. Established 
in March 1986, UBISoft has experienced 
rapid growth and expects to make $10 
million in 1989 alone. Their first game, 
Zombi, received both critical and popu- 
lar acclaim, and also introduced the 
world to the then novel icon-driven ad- 
venture game. 

UBISoft recently unveiled seven new 
titles for the ST at an extravaganza held 
at their Brittany headquarters, a con- 
verted 19th century chateau. Company 
manager Michael Guilemont explained 
that the chateau provides an ideal loca- 
tion for product development, and pro- 
grammers are welcome to stay for as 
long as they wish-often working 
through the night then spending their 
days relaxing canoeing and waterskiing 
at the 700-acre estate. 

British and American versions of the 
games are being developed. Epyx has 
secured the U.S. distribution rights for 
all of the UBISoft titles. 

As for the Games Themselves . . . 

Among UBISoft's latest releases is Iron 
Lord, a three-tiered adventure ^me that 
combines arcade action, strategy and 
maze solving Also in release is a game 
called Puffy 's Saga which is a Pac-Man 
takeoff with plenty of action and 
detailed graphics to keep the most ar- 
dent game player happy. Skateball is 
something of an oddity-a cross be- 
tween football and ice hockey. Vampire 
is based on the Dracula legend and 
brings the Count's on-going battle with 
Van Helsing up to date- 
Soon to be released is another 
graphic adventure called Final Com- 
mand. It's set in a future time where a 
mysterious alien force has destroyed a 
space station. You have the unenviable 
task of finding out just what is going on. 
Following this will be B.AT (Bureau des 
Affaires Temporelles), a mouse-driven 
graphic adventure located in a futuristic 
detective setting. And finally, Fer et 
Flamme is the working title of UBISoft's 
latest pending project which should be 
available in the US. in spring 1989. 

More Games 

UBISoft isn't alone in the new 
entertainment-software arena. Psygno- 

sis, for instance, has just released BAAL. 
As with many of their previous titles 
(like Bratacus and Barbarian), there is a 
strong strategy and mapping element 
hidden under a thin arcade veneer The 
250 screens, ultra-smooth scrolling and 
great graphics and sound effects will no 
doubt please the "if it moves, zap it" 
brigade. The Psygnosis press release 
promises that BAAL will include at least 
100 types of monsters and 400 traps. 

BAALs plot revolves around an elite 
group of "Time Warriors" who are 
searching for the component parts of a 
dreaded War Machine that BAAL has 
hidden throughout the first two levels of 
the game. Your task is hindered by the 
usual hoards of demonic beasts, and 
should you be lucky enough to acquire 
all of the parts of the weapon you'll then 
be allowed onto the third level to do 
battle with BAAL himself. It is here that 
the fate of the earth will be decided. 

Gremlin Graphics, part of the mas- 
sive US Gold group of companies, has 
announced two new games for the ST 
First is Motor Massacre, for which the 
scenario sounds more like a film trailer 
than a computer game: 

"The holocaust has come, plunging 
civilization into the depths of the ► 

START The ST Monthly 41 


"'A Best Buy' I'm impressed" 

David H. Ahl, Atari Explorer, Nov-Dec 1987 

"If you've got an Atari, you probably need this program." 

Jerry Pournell, Byte Magazine, October 1987 

"Converting the 1040ST to an MS-DOS machine with pc-ditto 
software is a breeze" 

John Wolfskill, PC Resource, October 1988 

"This is the product we have been looking for." 

Donna Wesolowski, ST Informer, August 1987 

"This truly incredible software emulator really works." 

Mike Gibbons, Current Notes, September 1987 

pc-ditto is a software-only utility which taps the power of our Atari ST to imitate an IBM PC XT. 
No extra hardware is required (an optional 5.25-inch drive may be required for 5.25-inch disks). 
Progams such as Lotus 1-2-3, Framework, Symphony, dBase II, II, III+, Sidekick, Turbo Pascal, 
and hundreds more, will work "out-of-the-box". 

We also recommend the 5.25-inch IB Drive by IB Computers (503-297-8425), and 
Drive Master, the floppy drive switchbox, by Practical Solutions, (602-884-9612). 

pc-ditto features include: 

All ST models supported (520, 1040, & Mega) 

up to 703K usable memory (1040 & Mega) 

not copy -protected - installable on hard disk 

imitates IBM monochrome and IBM color graphics adapters 

access to hard disk, if hard disk used 

optionally boots DOS from hard disk 

parallel and serial ports fully supported 

supports 3.5-inch 720K format and 360K single-sided formats 

supports optional 5.25-inch 40-track drives 

System requirements: 

• IBM PC-DOS or Compaq MS-DOS version 3.2 

or above recommended 

• optional 5.25-inch drive is required to use 
5.25-inch disks 

• 3.5-inch 720K DOS disks require a double-sided 
drive (Atari SF314 or equivalent) 

See pc-ditto today at an Atari dealer near you 
or write for free information. 



Avant-Garde Systems 
381 Pablo Point Drive 
Jacksonville, FL 32225 

Yes. Please send me more information! 
Avant-Garde Systems, 381 Pablo Point 
Jacksonville, Florida 32225 






The European Report 

murkiest hell on earth imaginable. 
Out of this devastation emerges a 
breed of survivors merciless in 
their greed for simple posses- 
sions. . . 

Butcher Hill, Gremlin Graphics' 
other release, sounds like a quiet romp 
through the forest compared to Motor 
Massacre. In it you must negotiate past 
mines, flak from enemy aircraft, soldiers 
and a whole host of other obstacles. 
Both games should be available in the 
U.S. by the time you read this. 

French software house Coktel Vision 
has obtained the rights to publish com- 
puter game versions of Walt Disney's 
Dig Jungle Book and Peter Pan, amongst 
others. They are also planning a game 
based on the Emanuelle series. 

Novagen Software, home of such 
classics as Encounter, Mercenary and 
Backlash, have just announced their 
new game Hellbent. According to the 
press release, the game "previewed at 
the PC show, where it generated lots of 
interest" and was due for a pre- 
Christmas release in Britain. 

Novagen's games are rarely dis- 
appointing-and Hellbent is likely to be 
no exception. Written by newcomer 
Donovan Prince, along with talented 
computer artist Mo Warden, the game is 
a superfast-scrolling, arcade-style crea- 
tion and will be Novagen's third 16-bit 
release. The fourth, developed by their 
main author Paul Woakes, will be enti- 
tled Damocles. A release date was not 
available at this writing. 


MicroProse, the U.S. software publisher 
best known for its flight simulations, 
has just acquired West German soft- 
ware house Axxiom. This follows their 
recent acquisition of Hi-Tech, a com- 
pany known for its low-priced PC soft- 
ware. Axxiom's ST software line consists 
mainly of fast arcade-type games, which 
have sold well in their native Germany. 
GST has just released version 3.0 of 
its popular 1ST Word Plus word- 

In the latest release 
from Psygnosis, the 
terrible BAAL has 
hidden the compo- 
nents of the War 
Machine and it's up 
to you and your 
band of Time War- 
riors to find them 
and save the world. 
Your task is hind- 
ered by the usual 
hoards of demons 
and beasts. 

processing package. It's still not the 
most powerful word processor on the 
market, but the new version does ad- 
dress most of the criticisms made 
against the previous version. 1ST Word 
Plus is still priced at about $148; up- 
grade disk and manual are available for 

Among UBISoft's 
latest releases is 
Skateball, a cross 
between football 
and ice hockey. 

about $55, 

New features include keyboard alter- 
natives for most of the menu options, 
improved speed during spell check and 
block manipulation and the ability to 
print the current document directly, 
rather than having to save it to the disk 
first. Support is also provided for half- 
line and proportional spacing on com- 
patible printers. 

Kempston, based in Milton-Keynes 
(England) and mainly known for its Line 
of joysticks, has just announced a brand 
new, hand-held image scanner The 
DAATAfax which comes complete with 
GEM-based software and interface, al- 
lows an image to be scanned, saved to 
disk in a number of formats and 
printed out on standard Epson- 
compatible printers. 

Images produced by the approxi- 
mately $500 unit can be incorporated 
into many painting and desktop pub- 
lishing programs, or included in Kemp- 
ston's own DAATAfax computer-based 
personal organizer software. The total 
scan width is a tiny 105 millimeters 
(about six inches) with a resolution of 
200 dots per inch and a scanning rate 
of two centimeters per second. 

Next Month 

Next month I'll bring you a full report 
on the Christmas 1988 Atari User Show 
in London. There should be plenty to 
tell you about as the event is rapidly be- 
coming the leading Atari-specific show 
in Europe - typically attracting some 
20,000 visitors over its three-day run. ■ 

Andre Wifley is the Technical Editor 
for Atari User, the United Kingdom's 
leading publication devoted to Atari 

START The ST Monthly 43 

The Birth of 

A Partial List of Features T 

Fully interactive 2 dimensional & TRUE 3 dimensional 


Multiple 3D views can be opened and modified at any time 

y updating at all times 
Automatic generation of ANY orthographic view i 
defined auxiliary views 

Entities can be selectively hidden in any view allov. . 
generation of true orthographically sound views 
Extremely user friendly 
Full GEM interface, pull down 

256 Layers can be activated invidually or in g 

i modes allow magnification's of up to 1,000,000 times 
The ability to overlay other programmes froi 


Sophisticated command nesting allows the following partial 1 

of commands to be accessed at any time: 

Zoom in or out 

Zoom a window 

Scroll or "Pan" the page 

Center the page on a point 

Multiple 3 Dimensional dynamic rotations at any angular 


Rotate any 3 Dimensional view to a predefined co-ordinate 



Introducing DynaCADD. ..a Professional CADD Solution 
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, mechanical, architectural or 
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signs and details drawings in 2D or 
s and writes the industry standard 

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sweep, rescale, E P ! 

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Translation b. 

arrays, mirror, 1 

project, revolve, trim and divide 

3 Dimensional entity transformation of any view 

Dimensional entities 

Select entities for transformation & editing using 

Digitize, Windows, Windows Oul, View Windn 

nr I act 

Plotter Output 

r Printers, draft and fin 

Data Transfer 

DynaCADD rt 
DXF Drawing Files 
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llai ami P(! 



Using MS-DOS 

by David Plotkin 
START Contributing Ed 

For Atari ST owners used to mice, 
windows and menus, MS-DOS is any- 
thing but user- friendly. Once you've 
booted pc-ditto, put an MS-DOS disk 
into the drive and pressed Return, 
you're on your own. When DOS is 
finished loading, there is nothing on the 
screen but the default input prompt: the 
drive letter and the greater than (">") 
symbol. Oh, you may have customized 
the DOS prompt (as discussed in this 
column in the November 1988 issue of 
START), but the question still remains: 
what do you do now? 

CLI Jitters 

I first encountered this problem back 
in the 8-bit days. The first time I tried a 
CPM computer (MS-DOS is modeled af- 
ter CPM to some extent), I got that sink- 
ing feeling so common to first-time 
MS-DOS users: 'Til never get the hang 
of this." (Even the DOS that came with 
my Atari 810 disk drive was friendlier 
than MS-DOS, for the commands were 
listed onscreen.) 

MS-DOS is a command line inter- 
face, or CLI. That means that you must 
type the desired command at the 
prompt. Thus, you must know not only 
the name of the command (such as 
COPY, MODE, etc.) but also the precise 
syntax- the variables and characters 
which must follow the command name 

DOS shells such 
as Spinnaker Soft- 
ware's DOS Man- 
ager make it easier 
to deal with 

exactly to get it to execute correctly. For 
example, to copy all the files on disk A 
that end in ".BAT" to disk B, you would 
type: COPY A:*. BAT B: at the prompt. 
If there's even one syntax error in a 
lengthy command, MS-DOS refuses to 
perform (or, if you're unlucky, it does 
exactly what you don't want it to do). 

Many MS-DOS commands are 
externa/, meaning that they must be 
loaded from disk before they can be ex- 
ecuted, so you need to keep your DOS 
disk handy. However, since the com- 
mands are just programs on the disk, 
it's easy to write your own "extensions" 
to DOS. In fact, you can execute most 
machine language programs at the DOS 

prompt simply by entering a filename 
at the prompt. 

Shell Game 

It's easier to use a "DOS shell" than the 
"A>" prompt. In effect, a DOS shell is a 
menu structure that simplifies entry of a 
command, then executes it for you. 
DOS shell prices range from free (public 
domain) to quite expensive, but one of 
the nicest I've seen is Spinnaker's Easy 
Working DOS Manager (DM), a very 
reasonable buy at $9.95. 

DM presents a menu (aha!) along the 
top edge of the screen. Just as with 
GEM on the ST, various menu titles are 
available and you move between them ► 

46 March 1989 

mm www m mmmmmwm w$w 

When it comes to publishing on the ST, no one does it 
Better than Fleet Street and YOU! 

Your wait for a full featured bug-free Desk 
Top Publishing program ended when you 
discovered Fleet Street Publisher 2.0. Now 
your publications can have the extraordinary 
impact that only a Professional Desk Top Pub- 
lishing program can give them. 

You can begin creating impressive newslet- 
ters, advertisements, business reports, bulletins 
immediaily with the most advanced Desk Top 
Publishing program available for the Atari ST. 
Fleet Street Publisher 2.0 has the features you 
want at a price you won't believe (Read about 
MjchTron's Special Introductory Offer be- 

Fleet Street Publisher 2.0 allows such ad- 
vanced text features as the ability to type di- 
rectly onto the page, or to load text from any 
ASCII word-processing File. This includes Files 

created on IBMs and compatibles. Word proc- 
essing control codes can be stripped out auto- 

Automatic Hyphenation (by algorithm), 
paragraph and column justification, text kerning, 
variable selectable leading, and proportional 
spacing make text manipulation a breeze. There 
is also a search and replace feature. Adding to 
your layout potential are line and box drawing 
tools that alio w multiple line weights and shades. 
Youcanevencombine these with variableback- 
ground tones and shadings. 

You may utilize the included typefaces in 
varying sizes from 4 to 216 points with 1 Meg of 
memory. The package includes a complete li- 
brary of ready-to-use images, or you can easily 
import graphic screens and scanned images 
from other software products. There is also a 

Pixel Editor for creating, adapting, and/or touch- 
ing-up existing art work. A number of printer 
drivers from postscript to dot matrix prinlcrs 
provide excellent final copies of your finished 

Now MichTkon makes an extraordinary 
offer. We know that many of you have already 
purchased Desk Top Publishing programs; we 
also know that you deserve and want the best 
available. So, until March 31,1989, if you send 
us the Copyright page from any Desk Top Pub- 
lishing program manual, we will send a copy of 
Fleet Street Publisher 2.0 for only $50.00, a 
$149.95 value for only $50.00. Don't wait, 
order your copy today! 


576 S. nieerMik. ,",;.•;.',„<:, Mi sVv.:.i.i 
Orders and rnforr:oSM,-.iili) 



t Exploring Japan with Jet - Now that 
Japan Scenery Disk is included with Jet, we'd like 
to offer some suggestions for exploring the 
Japanese countryside from the cockpit of your 

First, a close-up view of Tokyo. Take off from 
Hyakuri Airport (North 18542, East 32874) and 

i to a heading of 187 degrees. This flight path 
takes you into the peninsula forming the right 
boundary of Tokyo Bay (see Tokyo area chart). At 
Mach 1 this heading should bring you to Mew 
Tokyo International Airport at Marita in about five 

lutes. Turn right to a heading of 270 degrees at 

ita to put yourself on a direct course to Tokyo. 
When Tokyo comes into view, throttle back to 45% 

I drop altitude to 1,000 feet to explore the city. 
Highlights including Tokyo Tower and the 
Emperor's Palace will be clearly visible, with many 
high-rise skyscrapers to the north. Head for Tokyo 
International Airport (Haneda) in the southwest part 
of the city. Make your approach and land at Tokyo 

rmational. Keep your airspeed low and don't 
overshoot the runway or you'll end up in Tokyo Bay! 
Next month - another Japanese adventure! 

\* New Scenery Disk # 9 - We're just 
about to release our newest and best Scenery Disk 
yet! Scenery Disk # 9 covers our own backyard, 
the great midwest, with unprecedented .3D detail. 
The Chicago, St Louis and Cincinnat. sectional 
areas feature more realistic renditions of at major 
cites and much improved airport runways Many 
airports now have a Visual Approach Slope 
Indicator (VASI) landing light system. If you've ever 
wanted to fly under the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, 
this is the disk you've been waiting for. See your 
dealer or contact us directly to order or for 
additional rircdurt ,-ifo"m:'.fic.n 

Top Selling Scenery Disks This Month: 

[S24.95 each, lor use with Right Simulator II and Jet) 
1. "Western European Tour" Scenery Disk 
2. Scenery Disk # 7 (U.S. Eastern Seaboard) 
3.Scenery Disk # 3 (U.S. South Pacific) 
4.Scenery Disk # 1 1 (U.S. North Eastern 

5. San Francisco Scenery Disk 

See your dealer to purchase SubLOCIC products, 
or call us direct to order by charge card at (800) 
637-4983. Illinois residents call (217) 359-8482. 

SubLOQlC Corporation 
501 Kenyon Road 
Champaign, IL 61820 

Mac and PC on the ST 

with the left and right cursor keys. To 
make a menu drop down, just press the 
down cursor key. The up and down 
cursor keys can then be used to high- 
light a choice. You press Return to select 
it or Escape to remove the menu from 
the screen. Pressing Fl brings up a help 
screen for the current selection. You 
don't need to memorize this, though; a 
line of text near the menu bar reminds 
you which keys to press. 

All the standard DOS commands are 
available from the menu, such as view- 
ing, printing, copying and finding a file; 
copying formatting or checking an entire 
diskette; backing up and restoring a 
hard drive; and renaming, removing 
and creating directories. One nice thing 
about DM is that if you've selected an 
option that requires additional informa- 
tion, all you need to do is type it in and 
DM takes care of the syntax. For exam- 
ple, the COPY command requests the 
source directory of the file(s) to copy 
and the destination disk and directory. 
Finally, DM presents you with a direc- 
tory of all the files in the source direc- 
tory. You can then highlight each file to 
copy by moving the cursor to it with the 
arrow keys and pressing the spacebar to 
mark it; all marked files will be copied. 
This ability to operate on several files at 
once can be a big time-saver. 

If you need direct access to MS-DOS, 
there is an option in DM that lets you 
enter a command in CL1 form. This is 
handy, especially since DM doesn't sup- 
port some of the more esoteric DOS 

Almost As Easy As. . . GEM! 

DM also includes an Applications menu 
that lets you run your favorite applica- 
tions with near-mouse ease You can 
customize the names of the items on 
the Applications menu and add or de- 
lete menu items. For example, DM 
comes configured with three items: 
Word Processor, Spreadsheet and File 
Manager However, you can add other 
items or change Word Processor to the 

name of your favorite word processor. 
You can also specify (via dialog boxes) 
which program to run (and which 
directory to run it from) when you click 
on an item in the Applications menu. 

Miscellaneous Observations 

• DM comes with an onscreen tutorial. 
You must copy some of the DOS com- 
mand files to your DM disk, since it 
calls the DOS commands from disk. By 
watching the name of the command 
called and the syntax as it appears on 
the screen, you can also leam about 

• If you install DM on your hard drive, 
you won't be able to format a disk and 
put the system files on it (making it 
bootable) unless DOS was booted from 
the floppy drive. This is no big deal- 
just boot DM from a floppy if you need 
to format system disks. Also, the manual 
is on disk and must be printed by the 
user-a bit of an inconvenience but the 
price you pay for high-value, low-cost 

It's Worth It 

All in all, DOS shells make the occa- 
sional venture into MS-DOS almost pal- 
atable for the uninitiated GEM user. 
Spinnaker's little $9.95 wonder is worth 
every penny-and more. ■ 

Contributing Editor David Plotkin is a 
chemical engineer at Chevron USA and 
has published several articles in Antic 
and START. 


pc-ditto, $89.95. Avant 
Garde Systems, 38! Son 
Poblo Drive, Jacksonville, FL 
32225, [904] 221-2904. 

Easy Working DOS 
Manager, $9.95. Spin- 
naker Software, One Kendall 
Square, Cambridge, MA 

48 March 1989 

Strike Up The Band 

Digig ram's Big Band 

by Mihai Manoliu 

The concept is great: a program that 
takes a chord progression or melody and 
creates an arrangement in any one of a 
variety of musical styles. Big Band is a 
valiant attempt at such a program, but 
which ultimately falls short of the mark. 
It can still be a lot of fun, however 

Big Band is from the French company 
Digigram and is distributed in the United 
States by Imagine Music Group, It uses a 
hardware cartridge key (dongle) for copy 
protection. This is fine if you don't use 
the cartridge slot for different programs; 
otherwise, you may become imtated at 
having to insert the thing every time you 
use the program. Both color and mono- 
chrome monitors are supported, and 
most 520ST owners should have plenty 
of memory left over for their compo- 

A Wealth of Options 

Big Band calculates complete band 
arrangements from a single chord or 
melody track created with an external 
sequencer, provided that it supports the 
MIDI standard file format, Level 0. Big 
Band can also generate progressions and 
melodies on its own. 

Each type of calculation- CHORDS, 
MELODIES or SOLO-has its own set of 
options. CHORDS calculates up to three 

; DEmacK.szi 


Italic 1,11 

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Ballad 4/4 
Paso Vi 

Blues 4/4 

In Big Band, you 
choose the style 
and components of 
your arrangement, 
although not every 
feature is available 
in every style. If you 
like Big Band's ar- 
rangement — or 
parlsof it — you can 
save individual 
tracks and have Big 

versions with an accompaniment pattern 
for each; you can choose between Ma- 
ior, Minor modality or let the software de- 
cide MELODIES generates up to 10 ver- 
sions with a range specified by you or 
the program (only Rock and Ballad melo- 
dies are available). SOLO also generates 
up to 10 versions with specification of 
range, starting bar and number of meas- 
ures; similar choices apply to counter- 
points, riffs and rhythmics. 

You can choose an arrangement from 
one of 14 different musical styles: Rock, 
Ballad (4/4, 12/8), Blues, Swing, Reggae, 
Bossa-Nova, Samba, Slow-Rock, Funk, 
Disco, Waltz, Tango and the Faso. De- 
pending on which style you choose, Big 
Band can produce chords, melodies, 

rhythmics (accompaniment, drums and 
bass), solos, riffs (melodic phrases) and 
counterpoint. Not all music generation 
options are available for each style Rock 
and Ballad styles support most options, 
but other styles allow you only a few op- 
tions (typically chords, rhythmics and 

Each musical style has its own 
configuration of channels, controller and 
volume assigned to each instrument: 
bass, melody, solo, accompaniment 1 and 
2, riff, counterpoint, chords and drums 1 
and 2. You can define the drum kit (Dl) 
and percussion set (D2) to work with 
your specific setup. Reproducrion 
parameters allow you to set velocity, pro- 
gram number, pitch bend and controller ► 

START The ST Monthly 49 

Review Strike Up The Band 

values for each crack. You have real-time 
control over tempo, program number, 
MIDI channels, and track velocity. A loop 
function is used for continuous play. 

Press the Button, Mr. Dorsey 

Once you give Big Band the starting mu- 
sic material (or start it from scratch), all 
you have to do is select either CHORDS 
or ALL (an arrangement including drums, 
bass, riffs, and accompaniment) and Big 
Band creates the arrangement. When Big 
Band has finished, you must then decide 
which parts of the arrangement to keep 
and copy them to specific tracks reserved 
for those parts you want to preserve If 
you forget to copy them and try another 
variation, they will be written over in 
the next calculation cycle without any 


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quencer program that has such editing 

Sour Notes 

Unfortunately, Big Band has a number of 
shortcomings. The biggest problem is a 
bug in the chord edit mode Playing your 
keyboard in this mode (for example, to 
hear an alternate chord) crashes the ST, 
and your composition along with it. 

The manual is often confusing, but at 
least gives some insight into the rather 
clumsy program interface. It seems that 
almost everything takes extra steps that 
could have been avoided by using a more 
flexible and advanced programming ap- 
proach. For example, you have to copy 
tracks or blocks one at a time instead of 
as a group. The track copy command 
doesn't copy the MIDI channel, so you of- 

Big Band from Dia- 
gram is an interesting 
program that creates 
an entire orchestral 

scrap of melody of 
a few chords. Its 
controls appear quite 
simple, but there is 
a great deal of power 
(and complexity) 
hidden here. 

After you have copied any useful parts 
from an arrangement, you can then 
generate another set of calculations -such 
as solos, alternate melodies, chords in a 
different style, or more rhythmics using 
another style Big Band has 24 tracks; of 
these, 13 are used for new calculations 
and the others are for storing the parts 
you elect to keep. 

Some limited track-editing options are 
provided. You can change delete and in- 
sert chords; copy, transpose and chain 
blocks of bars, or chain tracks together 
Individual tracks cannot be edited in the 
program but can be exported to a se- 

ten end up having to change the channels 
as well. It is rather frustrating to work at 
the level of detail that Big Band forces on 
the user These problems are compounded 
by the cost of the program ($299). That's 
as much as a good, professional-level se- 
quencer costs, but Big Band is not nearly 
as useful or well-designed. 

There are other annoyances, but if you 
are willing to navigate your way around 
them you can have a lot of fun with Big 
Band. With minimal effort you can 
generate a complete orchestration of a 
melodic or harmonic idea, then jam with 

the program or explore a mix of different 
styles and progressions. 

Not For the Novice 

You will need a lot of equipment to get 
the most out of Big Band: one or more 
MIDI keyboards (preferably multi- 
timbral), a drum machine and a se- 
quencer program that supports MIDI 
Files. The instruments should be of good 
quality or you may wind up sounding 
like a simple play-along organ. This is a 
serious obstacle to mass market appeal of 
the program. Novice musicians are un- 
likely to have the equipment and knowl- 
edge necessary to use the program easily 
On the other hand, serious musicians 
would most likely want a lot more from 
the program. Since many of the musical 
stylistic interpretations are quite simple 
and the rhythmics invariant (except drum 
fills), this is probably not the approach to 
arranging your next big hit. 

Given the high price of Big Band and 
its many limitations, I cannot recommend 
buying it at this time I think it would be 
more likely to succeed if a few more edit- 
ing and recording features were added 
and the price reduced into the hundred- 
dollar range. According to the Imagine 
Music Group, this may happen in the fu- 
ture as more advanced levels of Big Band 
become available This program has great 
potential, especially for the budding mu- 
sician. I hope we will not have to wait 
long for it to become affordable ■ 

Mihai Manoliu is a music producer/ 
teacher and computer programmer living 
in the Los Angeles area. 


Big Band Orchestral 
Composer, $299. Imagine 

Music Group, 751 South 
Kellogg Avenue, Santa 
Barbara, CA 93117, (800) 


Choosing a 
Graphics Program 

by Lajos V. Kreinheld 

What do you do if you're new to the ST 
computing world and want to try your 
hand at becoming an electronic Michael- 
angelo? What drawing program should 
you buy? Maybe you already know how 
to paint pretty pictures on your 
screen-but now you want to see them 
move. What animation program can 
turn you from Norman Rockwell to 
Walt Disney? And what if you want to 
render a 3D fighter plane, with realistic 
highlighting and shadows? 

Good questions. Here are some 

Color or Monochrome? 

Before you choose your ST graphics 
program(s), you need to determine 
what you want to accomplish on the sys- 
tem you have. If you want to doodle or 
create fine art, you'll probably want a 
color monitor (as most US. ST owners 
have). You then have a choice of paint- 
ing in medium resolution (320-by-400 
pixels) in four colors, or low res 
(320-by-200 pixels) in 16 colors. (Note: 
there are a handful of programs that 
break this color barrier, which I'll 
discuss later) 

However, if you want to draw snazzy 
graphics for, say, desktop publishing, 
you'll probably need a monochrome 

Figure 1: 

NEOchrome's Jack 
Knife function lets 
you cutout portions 
of your picture and 
place them in front 
of or behind other 

monitor Most ST DTP programs work 
only in monochrome high resolution 
(640-by-400 pixels-higher than an off- 
the-shelf Macintosh Plus or Mac SE). If 
you have both color and monochrome 
monitors, then you're all set and you 
can always convert low-res pictures to 
high-res for your newsletter or brochure. 

Drawing and hinting Programs 

The terms "drawing" and "painting" 
program are used pretty much inter- 
changeably in the personal computer 
industry, but for the purposes of this ar- 
ticle, let's refine and define these terms. 

A drawing program is one used 
primarily for line drawing- plans for 
say, houses or engineering components, 
or line art for desktop publishing. 
Drawing programs typically are "line- 
oriented," and have great facilities for 
creating and scaling tines and geometric 
shapes. They may also have specialized 
line features such as rounded or angled 
box comers, or unusual fill patterns, 
such as shake panels (for ranch house 

A good example of a drawing pro- 
gram is Easy-Draw, from Migraph. It fea- 
tures all of the features listed above, plus * 

START The ST Monthly 51 

Getting Started 

Figure 2: 

With DEGAS Elite's 

font designer, you 

can create your 

own custom 


several others designed to strengthen its 
position as a "page layout" program- 
sort of a junior desktop publisher. Easy- 
Draw also includes powerful text fea- 
tures with The Supercharger, a "souped- 
up" extension of Easy-Draw. (Editor's 
Note: MiGraph has recently extended 
Easy-Draw's capabilities still further with 
Easy Tools and Touch-Up; watch for reviews 
oj these packages in an upcoming issue.) 

Paint programs are more suited to 
fine art, and are almost exclusively 
color Paint programs usually let you 
create color art with a wide variety of 
user-definable tools, such as brushes, 
stipple and airbrush, colored fill pat- 
terns and the like. 

The ST has several excellent paint 
programs. Tying for the position of ST 
"graphics grandfather" are Atari's NEO- 
chrome and Electronic Arts' DEGAS 
Elite (formerly DEGAS, and formerly 
published by now-defunct Batteries In- 
cluded). In their original forms, both 
programs were released within a few 
months after the ST went on sale in 
1985. Both these programs and others, 
such as Paintworks, Paintpro and the 
OCP Art Studio feature a vast array of 
tools for creating fine art. (Editor's Note: 
If your copy oj this issue of START came 
with a disk, then you already own what we 
feel is one of the best 16-color paint pro- 
grams around: SEURAT) 

One unique feature of NEOchrome 
is its 'Jack Knife" function-you can cut 
out an irregularly-shaped portion of an 

image and reposition it either behind or 
in front of other images on your screen, 
as shown in Figure 1. 

DEGAS Elite's greatest strengths lie in 
its powerful Block functions. You can 
grab a portion of your image, stretch it, 
compress it and repaste it anywhere on 
your screen. DEGAS Elite also comes 
with a font designer (see Figure 2), let- 
ting you design your own custom 
typefaces-or even alphabets in other 
languages, such as Hebrew or Greek. 

"Supercolor" Paint Programs 

Although the ST normally has only 16 
colors available in its low-res mode, 
several paint programs have broken this 
barrier by fancy manipulation of the 
STs video hardware. These programs 
let you paint pictures with the STs 
complete palette of 512 colors, resulting 
in images of much greater apparent 

Figure 3: 
Cyber Sculpt lets 
you build extremely 
complex CAD-3D 
objects with com- 
pound curves. 

The best of these programs is Spec- 
trum 512, which has paint features 
equivalent to the STs standard 16-color 
paint programs. Its powerful block func- 
tions and block buffer (limited only by 
your available RAM) make it the super- 
color program of choice, although it 
does have some drawbacks-its 
keyboard-intensive user interface is 
difficult to master and it has no text fea- 
tures. (Editor's Note: See Marcus Badg- 
ley's review of Unispec, a Spectrum 512 up- 
grade, in this issue.) 

Two other supercolor paint programs 
for the ST are GFA Artist (reviewed in 
the Spring 1988 issue of START) and 
Quantum Paint 1.2 (reviewed in Special 
Issue #4). In addition to its paint fea- 
tures, GFA Artist has the added attrac- 
tion of simple animation capabilities. 
However, both these programs let you 
use the added colors only on groups of 
scan lines, unlike Spectrum 512, which 
lets you draw freely anywhere on the 
screen with any color available 

CAD Programs 

Computer-aided Design (or CAD) pro- 
grams can fall into both drawing and 
painting categories. CAD programs can 
be two-dimensional (for engineering 
drawings, architectural blueprints) or 
three-dimensional (for realistically lit 
and shaded computer-created objects). 
Ideally, you should be able to load a 2D 
CAD program's output into a desktop 
publishing program and the output of a 

52 March 19 

3D CAD program into a painting 
and/or animation program. 

Thanks to its crystal-clear mono- 
chrome display, the ST is well-suited for 
the exacting demands of 2D CAD. For 
tips on which program to select for your 
needs, check the overview of the latest 
CAD programs elsewhere in this issue. 

For three-dimensional CAD, there's 
no better program than Tom Hudson's 
CAD-3D 2.0 (part of the Cyber Studio). 
CAD-3D lets you construct complex, 
realistically lit and shaded objects 
through its powerful Extrude and Spin 
functions, then animate them with 
Cyber Control (a BASIC-like program- 
ming language). To create objects with 
complex curves, such as a ship's hull, 
you would use Cyber Sculpt, shown in 
Figure 3. 

Animation Programs 

Animation programs let you create your 
own computerized movies. Typically, an 
animation program includes paint fea- 
tures (some rudimentary; others quite 
sophisticated) enabling you to draw 
color images. You can then use the pro- 
gram's animation features to cut and 
paste portions of your images in differ- 
ent positions across a range of frames, 
and play them back and forth at vari- 
able speeds. 

Some animation programs create 

f % # $ f V V W v v 1 

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Figure 4: 
A sprite editor, 
such as the ST Sprite 
Factory, can help 
you create small, 
animated graphics 
to incorporate info 
your game 

only 2D images (like a flat cartoon). A 
very powerful and complete package for 
2D animation with sound is Epyx's Art 
& Film Director Other programs, such 
as Aegis Developments Animator ST, are 
2V2D, performing 3D movements on flat 
images. Aegis Animator ST also does 
mctamorphic (tvraii?ig: you can create a 
rectangle, push and pull its corners and 
sides into a new shape, then watch as 
the program makes the old object 
"mutate" into its new state. 

Cyber Paint has both 2D and 2V2D 
features, and also serves as a "post pro- 
duction" studio for Cyber Studio CAD- 
3D animations. You can load zooming 
CAD-3D spaceships into Cyber Paint, 

Figure 5: 
START'S Pixel-Pro 
program lets you 
take DEGAS or 
NEOchrome low- 
res pictures and 
perform unusual 
pixel manipulations 
on them. 

then just draw in engine exhaust or 
laser beams frame by frame. Cyber Paint 
also is a very powerful painting program 
in its own right. 

Sprite Editors 

If you're a computer games designer, 
you may need a sprite editor. A sprite 
editor lets you create small animated 
graphics, such as walking alien crea- 
tures, which you may later incorporate 
into your programs. Usually, you draw 
your character's individual movements 
pixel-by-pixel on a grid (see figure 4) 
and then animate them, it's a painstak- 
ing process, akin to simplistic cartoon 
animation, since you have to draw your 
character in a variety of gradually 
changing positions in order to achieve 
smooth animation. 

Miscellaneous Graphics Programs 

For additional graphics manipulation, 
there are several fascinating add-on pro- 
grams that you can use in conjunction 
with the graphics programs mentioned 
above. One is Tom Hudson's Anti- 
aliaser, a desk accessor)' for DEGAS 
Elite and CAD-3D. The Anti-aliaser can 
help you remove the "jaggies" from your 
artwork, although you have to be careful 
with what colors you're using in your 
low-res palette. The Anti-aliaser can also 
be called from Cyber Control and used ► 

START The ST Monthly 53 

Order Toll Free ' 


Order Info and WI orders 

^O Since 1982 jm § g 

L-OniU/Tiet JLleCttOfllCb Order Info and WI orde 

Order Info and WI orders 




30 Meg 

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IMG Scanner 







3.5" Drive Ceaning Kit 9.95 
6 way surge protector 14.95 
6ft SF354/314 cable ..19.95 

Drive Master 34.95 

Monitor Master 34.95 

Mouse Master 34.95 

Mouse House 6.95 

Mouse Pad 8.95 

V yideo Key 64.95 / 

Modem ^ 

Supra 2400 baud 
ST Modem Cable 
Rash V1.6 Software 

. $155 

Casio Midi 

Getting Started 

to automatically clean up the rough 
edges on your CAD-3D animations. 

Another interesting program is Pixel- 
Pro, published in the Summer 1987 is- 
sue of START. Pixel-Pro takes DEGAS or 
NEOchrome low-res pictures and per- 
forms unusual pixel manipulations on 
them, as shown in Figure 5. When you 
load individual frames of a Cyber Paint 
animated sequence into Pixel-Pro, alter 
them, then load them back into Cyber 
Paint, you can create quite striking 
effects. (Editor's note: In a future install- 
ment of "The Cyber Comer," well show you 
how to use Pixel-Pro with Cyber Paint.) 


Atari has always been known for its 
flashy graphics, since the long-ago re- 
lease of the Atari 800 computer and 
"Star Raiders." And Atari has other 
ground-breaking graphics boxes on the 
horizon-the long- anticipated ST Plus 
with higher resolution and more colors, 
and the transputer-based Atari Work 
Station, which boasts up to 1280-by- 

960 pixel resolution and millions of 

As a graphics-hungry computer user, 
1 hope these next-generation machines 
are blessed with the same high-quality 
software that the ST has had since its 
release. ■ 


Lajos V Kreinheld, ostensibly Professor 
of Astronomy at the College of Minerals 
and Mine Engineering, Joplin, Missouri, 
is actually the favorite pseudonym of 
former START Associate Editor Jon A. 
Bell Bell is now the Managing Editor of 
Oracle Magazine 

The Advanced OCP Art 
Studio, $44.95. Rainbird 
Software, distributed by Fire- 
bird Licensees, Inc., P.O. Box 
49, Ramsey, N. J., 07446, 

Aegis Animator ST, 

S79.95. Aegis Development, 

2115 Pico Blvd., Santa 
Monica, CA 90405, (213) 

Art & Film Director, 

$79.95. Epyx, P.O. Box 
8020, 600 Galveston Drive, 
Redwood City, CA 94063, 

Cyber Paint, $79.95, 
Cyber Sculpt, $89 95, 
CyberStudio, $89 95, 
Spectrum 512, $69.95. 

Antic Software, 544 Second 
Street, San Francisco, CA 
94107, [800)234-7001. 

DEGAS Elite, $59 95 

Electronic Arts, 1820 Gate- 
way Drive, San Mateo, CA 

GFA Artist, $79.95. 
MichTran, Inc., 576 S. 
Telegraph, Ponttac, Ml, 

NEOchrome, $29 95 

Atari Corp., P.O. Box 61657, 
1196 Borregas Ave., 
Sunnyvale, CA 94088, (408) 

Paint Pro, $49.95. 
Abacus Software, P.O. Box 
7219, Grand Rapids, Ml 
49510, (616)241-5510. 

Paintworks, $69.95. 

Aclivision, Inc., a division of 
Mediagenic, P.O. Box 7287, 
Mountain View, CA 94039. 

Quantum Paint 1.2, 

$44.95. Eidersoft, Inc., P.O. 
Box 288, Burgettstown, PA 
15021, (412)947-3739, 

54 March 1989 


j** Since 1982 ^m m - Sal11 am -5 pm |_£jjv ; 


ST Productivity & Education Software Specials 

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CAD Goes Pro 

The Electronic T-Square Revisited 

by Dave Edwards 

A year ago, I presented an overview of 
what were then the state-of-the-art CAD 
(Computer-Aided Design) programs for 
the ST. Things are different today. 

CADD (Computer-Aided Design and 
Drafting) is a means of computerizing the 
manual process of drafting. A word 
processor lets you manipulate words on a 
page and a CADD program lets you do 
much the same thing with lines, circles 
and other objects. The programs 
reviewed, from least complex to most, are 
First CAD (Level 1) from Generic Soft- 
ware, GFA Draft Plus from MichTron, 
MasterCAD from MichTron and Dyna- 
CADD from ISD Marketing. 

First CAD 

Generic has released a new version of 
First CAD for the Atari-which contains 
many of the features found in the IBM 
version (and in many ways is a direct 
port). It's a very complete package and 
has more than its share of commands for 
a program in this price range 

First CAD (Level 1) completely aban- 
dons GEM Even the file selection op- 
tions are the same as the IBM version. 
The commands are found in a series of 
menus that run along the right side of the 
screen. As you move the cursor with the 
mouse you are also moving a selector bar 



up and down this menu. You can choose 
commands by clicking the right mouse 
button or enter them with a two key se- 
quence Often, once you've chosen a 
command another menu appears with 
more choices. Screen locations are cho- 
sen via the left mouse button. 

I have a real fondness for Generic 
CAD, but the Atari versions total lack of 
the GEM interface seems like a cheap 
way to do a direct port to the Atari, espe- 
cially considering Generic's new Level 1 
for the Mac, which uses the standard 
Mac interface I guess they assumed that 
Mac users would reject any IBM port and 
that Atari users should just be happy that 
they are being supported at all. That may 
sound harsh, but seeing the beautiful job 

they did on the Mac makes me a little 
sick when 1 think about the ST version. 

But still, Level 1 is the best Atari CAD 
program in its price range-period. I can 
only hope that we will see Levels 2 and 3 
brought to the Atari. 

GFA Draft Plus 

The next program is a well-done, 
enhanced version of GFA Draft. Its new 
features make it much more "profes- 
sional," but I still have my doubts about 
using this program for critical work. 

As with the original Draft, GFA Draft 
Plus runs completely under GEM. Kudos 
for that! However, since CAD products 
usually have so many commands that 
there's not enough room for pull-down ► 

START The ST Monthly 57 

menus, Draft Plus combines all of the 
commands into one set of menus. The 
earlier version had two sets and required 
you to go back and forth between them. 
This was a nuisance, because 1 could 
never remember which set had the com- 
mand I needed. I'm glad they've done 
away with the hassle 

The program's set of commands is 
good, but not great. It was nice to see op- 
tions for placing points by relative, abso- 
lute and polar modes. The biggest prob- 
lem with the program is that, like most 
European programs, Draft Plus lets you 
input data in feet or inches, but not in 
feet and inches. In order to sell to the 
American market, it must have this 
feature-70 percent of all CAD users are 
in the architectural and mechanical fields 
and they will not want to use a program 

Desk Preset Lines Window Sunhals Options In 

that forces them to change the way 
they've always done things. 

The GEM interface makes it easy to 
get around in the program, but moving 
around the drawing can be a little strange 
Not only does Draft Plus use standard 
"window" commands but you can also 
use the GEM slider bars which are hard 
to use and often produce unexpected re- 
sults. I recommend using the standard 
view commands. 

Another point is in the area of output. 
I feel that in order to be called "profes- 
sional," the program should let you use 
multiple pens on plotters, with each ele- 
ment having its own pen number as- 
signed to it. GFA Draft Plus does not. 

The manual that comes with the pro- 
gram is poor at best. There are very few 
illustrations and no examples of using the 


r M 

> 0| |D ■ 

1n E "1 

GPA Draft Plus from 

individual commands. This is unforgiva- 
ble for a graphically oriented program. 
Draft Plus also lacks too many important 
features to be used professionally and 
considering its price, GEM or not, I think 
I would look elsewhere. 


MasterCAD is a 3D design program with 
a unique approach to creating objects. 
The program is rather hard to use be- 
cause its technique is so different. It does 
have many 2D features and you can do 
some drawing of that type, but that's not 
its primary purpose 

MasterCAD lets you choose a view to 
look into its "universe" You then can 
define two imaginary planes that mark 
the top and bottom of your object. Now, 
when you draw a 2D object, the edges 
will be extruded to these planes. It takes 
some getting used to, but you can create 
some pretty impressive shapes in a short 
time The program also has commands 
for doing "spins" or "sweeps" of 2D out- 
lines to create 3D shapes. 

Once you've created your 3D shapes, 
you can shade the image and have the 
"hidden lines" removed. Your file can 
also be plotted or printed. The manual 
does a good job of explaining the 3D 
concepts and the tutorial section is easy 
to follow. 

But one basic question remains: What 

58 March 1989 

is this program good for? Besides its func- 
tion as a 3D design tool, I could find very 
few reasons to use this program. Master- 
CAD does not integrate with any other 
2D program, thus once you've created a 
design, you have no way to generate a set 
of working drawings to build it. There is 
also no way to use the hies in other pro- 
grams such as CAD-3D (from Antic Soft- 
ware), or use the designs as part of an 
animation. If these interfaces existed, this 
would be a great package for 3D design, 
but as a stand-alone program you have to 
wonder what purpose it could serve 


Now we get to the part that you've been 
waiting for DynaCADD from 1SD is a 
very impressive CADD program on the 
Atan-or any other microcomputer, for 
that matter It contains one of the most 
impressive user interfaces available and 
has many of the commands you usually 
only see in $3,000 IBM CADD programs. 
Watch out for this one! 

At $695 it is one of the most expen- 
sive programs available for the Atari, but 
in my opinion, for a program of this na- 
ture it is worth every penny The man- 
hours of work have to be offset and the 
programs features certainly justify the 

As I mentioned in the preview (pub- 
lished in the December 1988 issue of 

START), DynaCADD uses a cartridge- 
based hardware key that I wish ISD 
would lose If I never had to plug any- 
thing else into the pon, I wouldn't mind 
so much, but every now and then I just 
have to whip out the old 3D glasses, 
RAMdisk carts, desk accessory carts, etc. 
If ISD feels that it must have copy protec- 
tion, they really should use some other 
device for it. 

The program is very large and should 
be run on at least a 1040ST with a hard 
disk (and having two megs of memory 
wouldn't hurt either). Once you've com- 
pleted the easy installation process, you'll 
see the opening screen, at which time 
you'll be asked to select your drawing 
sheet size and scale All of the most 
popular European and American sizes arc 

Again, the user interface is one of the 
most impressive around. The whole thing 
is icon-based, which is pretty impressive 
for a CADD program considering the 
number of commands required. The pro- 
gram uses a menu icon system, meaning 
that activating one set of icons will acti- 
vate a second set below it. With many 
programs it is difficult to remember what 
an icon does, but DynaCADD features an 
icon prompt line so that whenever you 
move the cursor over an icon, a text line 
will appear in the upper right-hand cor- 
ner of the screen explaining what the 

icon does. Once you're familiar with the 
program these prompts can be turned off 
to speed things up. There's also a built-in 
onscreen calculator that comes up when- 
ever a numeric input is required. 

It's very easy to stan drawing with Dy- 
naCADD because it's so easy to find the 
commands you need. In reviewing a pro- 
gram, I first like to try to run it without 
ever opening the manual and with Dyna- 
CADD it was very easy to do. The pro- 
gram also runs under GEM and uses 
pull-down menus-not for command 
selection, but for file manipulation and 
the many different switch settings. I be- 
lieve that pull-down menus are too slow 
for a CADD program so I'm glad to see 
them limited to these functions. 

DynaCADD has more commands 
than many programs costing four times 
as much. Some that I found most impres- 
sive were for splines and Bezier curves; 
there's a complete set of commands to 
add and delete these curves' control 
points, so edinng existing curves couldn't 
be easier Another advanced feature is the 
ability to select an object for more 
manipulation by properly (pen number, 
layer, style) and also by object chaining. 
I'd never seen such a feature before-it 
lets you choose a series of connected ob- 
jects. Such manipulations are very impor- 
tant when dealing with complicated 
drawings and can be a great time-saver 

START The ST Monthly 59 



The program also has a macro lan- 
guage that lees you record keystrokes so 
that they can be played back later The 
program has so many commands that I 
could spend hours talking about them, 
but the only way you can really get a 
grasp of its complete power is to use it. 

For most of the program's options, 
such as dimensioning and printing, a set 
of pop-up menus is used. It's easy to 
make your choices for items such as 
dimensioning arrowheads or text units 
this way. Also, once these parameters are 
set they can be stored in a file and used 
in any subsequent drawing. It's really nice 
not to have to reset these all the time 

Briefly, on the downside: the program 
is written for a Canadian and European 
market and, like GFA Draft, it doesn't al- 
low input in feet and inches. Also, the 

manual is not the best in the world, but I 
am told that it's being rewritten. 

You can go straight into 3D from the 
main menu. DynaCADD has some very 
standard, easy-to-use 3D commands. The 
viewing method is also unique in that it 
lets you choose a 3D view and save it 
that way. This can really come in handy 
when you're trying to find just the right 
angle. Currently, shading and hidden line 
removal are not offered, but you can pro- 
ject a 3D image onto a 2D file and do the 
clean-up there 

A huge plus for this program is the 
ability to read and write DXF files. (The 
DXF format is used by nearly every IBM 
CAD system.) This is a must for CADD 
packages, enabling files to be exchanged 
between systems. Often an architect will 
work with a consultant engineering firm 

and it's great to be able to send and re- 
ceive work that's already in CAD form. 

1 experimented quite a bit with the 
DXF translator and found that it worked 
very well. I took files from AutoCAD and 
loaded them into DynaCADD with no 
problem. Also, I was able to load Dyna- 
CADD files into VersaCAD and Drafix 
CAD Ultra on my PC clone DynaCADD 
is also supporting the new large-screen 
Moniterm monitor, and the interface also 
lets you use a math co-processor 

One of the major drawbacks to Atari 
CADD is the ST itself. CADD needs as 
much processing power as possible and 
with a only an 8-mHz processor and no 
math co-processor commonly available, 
Atari CADD pales in comparison to what 
is available on the IBM PC. If Atari CADD 
is to be a viable platform, this kind of 
update is a must. ISD is also offering a 
separate math co-processor and a special 
version of the program that uses it. 

1 could go on and on about features, 
but I'm just as excited about the enhance- 
ments proposed for version 2.0. First, 
DynaCADD will be ported to the Mac- 
intosh and IBM PC Now before everyone 
begins booing, this is a necessary deci- 
sion for the programmers. ISD has a great 
product and should receive a wider au- 
dience Having the added support o( 
other user bases will only help Atari users 
by giving the company more capital and 


i Chart 

Charts of this nature 

fflcult be- 
cause two products 
may have the saire 
feature, but thai 
fee: rue -las an entire- 
ly d'"ersnt name in 
eocn product. The 
problem isn't so much 
:<rowhg whether o 
program has a 
feature as knowing 
that it doesn't. 

more input for other enhancements. 

The programmers of DynaCADD were 
very interested in what I had to say about 
the product and appear to be willing to 
make changes. Version 2.0 will have 3D 
shading and hidden line removal, but 
that's not the best part. ISD will soon re- 
lease a developer's kit that will allow for 
third party development of custom appli- 
cations. This is the lifeblood of CADD 
packages. 1 am told that DynaCADD will 
feature a program language that can be 
compiled (Yeah!) and will let you create 
your own icons and icon menus. 

Not only that, the program will let de- 
velopers access the DynaCADD native 
code In other words, they will have the 
same power of development as Dyna- 
CADD's own programmers. This is a first 
among micro CADD products and holds 
some very exciting possibilities. It was 
also brought to my attention that when- 
ever a new math function was needed, all 
the developers would have to do is re- 
quest it from ISD and it would be added 
in the next release 

DynaCADD is one of the few CADD 
products I would call great and I know 
we will be seeing much more of it in the 
future Should you wait for version 2.0? If 
you need DynaCADD's power now, buy 
it- now. ISD has been more than liberal 
in its upgrade policies and there's no rea- 
son to believe this won't continue 


I wanted to mention the latest upgrade 
from Foresight Resources. The Dot Plotter 
program is now bundled with Drafix. 
There's also a translation program that lets 
you exchange Atari Drafix tiles with users 
of Drafix on the IBM PC. Drafix is still 
the best mid-range CADD product avail- 
able for the Atari and I hope that these 
improvements will continue 

IBM CADD Using pc-ditto 

I'm often asked if such-and-such IBM PC 
product will run on the Atari using pc- 
ditto. The answer is "no" or "crawlingly" 
Most programs such as AutoCAD or Ver- 
saCAD now require a math co-processor, 
which pc-ditto does not emulate I did, 
however get the newest version of Drafix 
for the IBM PC (CAD Ultra) to run with 
pc-ditto, but it's excruciatingly slow; even 
bringing up a new command menu can 


take 10 seconds. Other than that, al- 
though the program does work in every 
way, I think it's close to unusable 


I really like First CAD and Drafix on the 
low end and DynaCADD on the high 
end. I am very interested in Atari releas- 
ing a faster computer which would give 
users an alternative to IBM PC CADD, but 
even so we still have some great choices. 

Dave Edwards runs a CAD consulting 
service and has -written several CAD- 
related articles. When he is not writing 
about CAD, you will find him doing 
VersaCAD training. He is also a MIDI 
consultant, professional drummer and 
managing editor of The MIDI Insider, 
The MIDI Power User's Newsource." 

DynaCADD, S695. ISD 
Marketing 265] John Street, 
Unit 3, Markham Industrial 
Park, Markham, Onatrio, 
Canada L3R 6G4, [416] 

First CAD (Level 1), 

$49.95. Generic Software 
Inc., 11911 North Creek Park- 
way South, Bofhell, WA 

GFA Draft Plus, $159 95; 
MasterCAD, $199.95. 

MichTron, 576 S, Telegraph, 
Pontiac, Ml 48053, (313) 

Drafix 1, $195. Foresight 
Resources Corp., 10725 
Ambassador Drive, Kansas 
City, MO 64153, (816) 

START The ST Monthly 61 



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UNIT 67. LAS VEGAS. NV 89121 



BASIC 2.0: 


If your January issue of 
START came with a START 
disk, you now own GFA 
BASIC 2.0, the most widely 
used BASIC on the ST. Now 
you need a manual for all 
the ins and outs of GFA 
BASIC programming. 

By special arrangement with 
MichTron, Inc., START'is now 
able to offer you their 
revised manual at the 
unbelievable price of only 
$9.95, plus $3.50 for ship- 
ping and handling. 

To order by phone, call (800) 
234-7001 and ask for Prod- 
uct #TH0001. (Only Master- 
Card and Visa orders 
accepted by phone.) Or 
send your check or money 
order for $13.45, payable to 
Antic Publishing, Inc., to: 

GFA Book Offer #TH 0001 
544 Second Street 
San Francisco, CA 94107. 

Quantities are limited, 
so order today! 

(And if you don't have the 
START disk for this issue, be 
sure to ask our operators 
how to get yours!) 

Compiled by Heidi Brumbaugh 

Behind Closed Doors 

The Wombats II universe, from START'S 
December 1988 issue, is huge, but you 
might not ever discover that if you don't 
get past the many doors in the game. 
Most of these are locked, but you may 
be able to pick them. Try examining the 
locks to see if anything you are carrying 
is about the right shape. 

The Multi-Res DESKTOP INF 

A reader wrote wondering if there was a 
way he could set a low resolution color 
palette and save it in DESKTOEINF, 
even though he saved his Desktop in 
medium resolution. That way, when he 
switched resolutions, he wouldn't have 
to use the system colors. 

Fortunately, DESKTOEINF saves all 
the current settings, whether or not they 
show up in that resolution. Set your 
computer to low resolution and sec the 
palette the way you want it using the 
Control Fanel. Save the Desktop and 
switch to medium resolution. Set up 
your icons and windows the way you 
want them to appear at boot time and 
save the Desktop again. Now when you 
switch to low resolution your colors, not 
the system's, will be retained. 

Setting up a Desktop so that it works 
well in two (or all three) resolutions can 
be a problem. You may have already no- 
ticed that if your medium resolution 
windows open on the far right side of 
the screen, they will be inaccessible 
when you switch to low res. 

Icons, on the other hand, will always 
move so that they are visible on the cur- 
rent screen. I like to set my hard drive 
icons on the far right hand side of a 

high resolution screen and then save 
the Desktop so that when I switch reso- 
lutions the icons will still be on the 
right hand side. 

A Desktop saved in high resolution 
will boot in low resolution on a color 
monitor To change this you can edit the 
DESKTOEINF file directly. The last 
number in the line that begins #E deter- 
mines the starting resolution; 1 for low 
and 2 for medium. 

After all this work, be sure to save a 
backup copy of your DESKTOEINF file; 
unless you have a Mega it's easy to acci- 
dently overwrite it. 

Working Together 

In the best of all possible worlds you 
could set up your ST with several Ter- 
minate and Stay Resident programs 
(TSRs) in your AUTO folder and the six 
maximum desk accessories and lead a 
happy, productive existence. Unfor- 
tunately, where computers are con- 
cerned programs will not always coexist 
peacefully. If you come across a bug or 
weird crash in one of your applications, 
be it a commercial program, a public 
domain gem or the neat little hack you 
just wrote (which was working fine be- 
fore), always suspect your TSRs and 
desk accessories of being at the root of 
the problem. Disable them by changing 
program extensions to ,PR_ and acces- 
sory extensions to ,AC_. Reboot and 
see if the problem crops up again. If the 
bug's still there, you haven't hurt any- 
thing by trying; if the problem's fixed, 
reactivate the programs on your boot 
disk one by one to see which one 
seemed to be causing the problem. 

Troubleshooting this type of problem 
doesn't take long and, though TSRs cer- 
tainly won't always be the culprit, you 
can save hours of tearing your hair out 
by checking them first. START'S Editor 
recently had a lot of fun tracking this 
incompatibility down: Turbo ST from 
SofTrek will cause Timework's Desktop 
Fublisher ST to eject blank pages rather 
than print files. 

If you do isolate an incompatiblity, 
be sure to notify both the manufacturer 
of the program that's having trouble and 
of the TSR or desk accessory so they 
can work to correct the problem. 

WordPerfect Macroization 

One of the best features of WordPerfect 
for the ST is its macro power. You can 
define almost any key with the Alter- 
nate key as a macro and if you exhaust 
these possibilities, you can define a let- 
ter combination or word as a macro. For 
example, you can create a macro to add 
a function to WordPerfect to convert a 
letter from lowercase to uppercase: 

1. Fress Control-FlO to turn on the 
Macro Definition function. 

2. If you want to call the macro with the 
Altemate-A key combination, for exam- 
ple, press this combination now. 

3. Press the Alternate and F4 keys to 
turn on the Block Function. 

4. Press the right arrow key to define a 
one-character Block. 

5. Press the Shift and F3 keys to bring 
up the case conversion menu and then 
press 2 and then Return to convert the 
Block to Uppercase. 

continues on page 67 

START The ST Monthly 63 

Disk Instructions 

How to Get Our Programs Up and Running 

Each article in this issue with a disk 
icon next to its title on the Table of 
Contents or "On Disk" on its first page 
has an accompanying file on your 
START disk. These files are archive 
files— they've been compressed with the 
Archive Utilities Set, or ARC, a public 
domain program a\aila::>le lor many 
personal computers. We use the ARC 
utility to squeeze the many files that 
may go with a particular article into one 
compressed file, which may be only 
40% of the total size of the original files. 
In addition to the archive files, you'll 
find the program ARCX.TTP, which 
stands for ARChive eXtract, on your 
START disk. You'll use this program to 
decompress, or extract, the disk files 
we've shrunk down with ARC. 

Getting Started 

To use the files and programs on your 
START disk, please follow these simple 
instructions. You'll need two blank, for- 
matted single- or double-sided disks to 
properly extract the files 

Your START disk is not copy- 
protected and you should make a copy 
oF it immediately to the first blank disk. 
Make sure the write-protect window is 
open on the START disk at all times to 
insure that you don't accidentally erase 
the disk. 

Note: If you are unsure how to format a 
disk, copy a disk or copy individual files, 
please refer to your original Atari ST or 
Mega manual and study these procedures 
carefully before going on. 

After you've copied your original 
START disk, store it in a safe place and 
label the copy disk "START Backup." 

Now, put your START Backup disk in 
Drive A of your computer and double- 
click on the Drive A icon to see the 
disk's contents. 

Un-ARCing the Files 

To use START'S compressed disk files, 
please follow these steps: 

1. Copy the ARCed file you wish to 
use and the program ARCX.TTP from 
your START Backup disk onto your sec- 
ond blank formatted disk. When you're 
finished, label it Vn-ARC disk. 

2. Now you'll extract the compressed 
files from the ARC file you just copied. 
Insert your Un-ARC disk into Drive A 
and press the Escape key on your ST to 
see the disk directory. Double-click on 
ARCX.TTP. The following dialog box 
will appear: 


None: flRCX 


I Cancel | 

3. Type in the name of the ARC file 
you just copied over to your Un-ARC 
disk as shown in the example below 
and press Return. You do not have to 
type in the extender .ARC. 


Hane; flRCX ,TTP 

s an p 1 e| 

I OK | I Cancel I 

the name of the ARC file. You must type 
the filename exactly as it appears in the 

4. As the program runs, it will dis- 
play the names of the individual files as 
it extracts them, similar to the example 

drchive: SBMPLE 


Extracting 1 



Extracting 1 



Extracting 1 



Extracting 1 




When ARC has successfully ex- 
tracted all the files, it will return to the 
Desktop and you will see the original 
files within the directory window, along 
with the archive file and the ARCX.TTP 
program. You may now use any of the 
START files as you wish; just follow the 
instructions in the appropriate article in 
this issue. 

To use any other archive files on 
your START disk, simply repeat the 
above procedures. 

In addition to the runnable pro- 
grams, some ARC files may also contain 
source code listings or an ASCII text file 
(called BREAKDWN.TXT, for example) 
which describes the program's structure. 
You can examine this file from the ST 
Desktop by double-clicking on its icon 
and then clicking on Show (to see it on 
the monitor) or Print (to print it out) as 
shown in the example below. 

(Note: If ARCX.TTP can't find a file, it 
may be because you have misspelled 

Vou can only print or display 
this docunent, Please click 
on appropriate button to 
do so. 

I ShoM I I Print I | Cancel | 

64 March JP, 


For the first time ever, START brings you 
a full-featured, high-powered paint pro- 
gram. SEURAT, by Sterling K. Webb, is 
a versatile, powerful paint program for 
all three resolutions and a megabyte or 
more of memory. 92 built-in fills, block 
manipulation, screen transforms, color 
mapping, masking- they're all in 
SEURAT, and more Files SEURATARC, 
PALETTES.ARC. Be sure to read the 
special instructions in the sidebar 
accompanying SEURAT on how to un- 
ARC the program hies. 

We also have something special for 
START'S younger readers. With ST 
Coloring Book, by Richard Farrell, 
keeping inside the lines was never eas- 
ier You and your children will spend 
many enjoyable hours coloring in the 
five line drawings we've provided on 
your START disk. You can use ST Color- 
ingBook to draw your own. Files COL- 
the ST Coloring Book article for special 
instructions on un-ARCing these two 
files); runs in low resolution. 

If you're tired of seeing other people 
show off their great ST graphics pro- 
grams and you're ready to start writing 
your own, check out the Assembled 
Saucers demo by Walt Wakeheld. 
Study this program's well-commented 
assembly language source code to get 
started. File SAUCERS.ARC; runs in 
medium or low resolution. 

START takes a break from our Pro- 
gramming in BASIC column this issue 
to bring you Programming in Prolog 
Joseph Schmuller's sample knowledge 
base is in the file PROLOG. ARC; this file 
(MASH) is uncommented so you can 
use it with either Xpro or GProlog (from 
the Spring 1988 issue of START). ■ 

Life Is Too Short 
To Waste Time 

Chances ore, 
if you're using a 
sequencer, you're 
wasting a lot of 
time. Unless you're 
using RealTime;'-' the 
intelligent Music. 

RealTime lets you d' 
c is playing. Yoi 

v sequencer from 

ything as your 
phicafiy edit 
to the finest detail. Instantly access all MIDI 
controls. Load and save Patterns, Songs and 
device setups. Even run other programs and 
desk accessories from within Realtime. All 
while you're listening. 

And to speed you up eves 
includes interactive features 
Bandage J" which lets you sli 
different tracks to produce n 
of musical elements. Automatic Fill Genera- 
tion, which enables you to enhance your 
original material. Time Deviation, which 
allows you to give each track its 
feel. And much mote. 

So stop wasting your time m 
Get into RealTime today Caff 01 
the dealer nearest you- Or send a 510 check 
and we'll send you o demonstration package. 
For the Atari 520, 1040. and MEGA ST. 

more, RealTime 
Like Track 
*e elements of 
w combinations 


rite us for 


Intelligent Music- 
116 North Lake Avenue 
Albany, NY 12206 USA 


RealTime features 

■ 256 simultaneous 

■ 768 parts per 
whole-note clock 

■ Device Lists to store 
drum machine and 
synth setups 

■ Copying, pasting, and 
editing of any region 
or Pattern 

■ Independent, nested 
track looping 

■ Graphic arrangement 
of Songs 

■ Import and export 
of MIDI Files 

■ Synchronization 

■ Complete GEM 



Every issue, START features great pro- 
grams on disk. If you bought this 
issue of START without the disk, 
you're missing out! 

CALL (800) 234-7001! 

START The ST Monthly 65 

Software discounters 

OF AMERICA c u „„ 

USA/Canada Orders-1-800-225-7638 
PA Orders— 1-800-223-7784 
Customer Service 412-361-5291 

• Free shipping on orders "> 
over $100 in continental USA 

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• Your Card is not charged until we ship 

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ithin 60 days from S.D.of A. i 

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AK, HI, FPO, APO-add $5 oi 
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replaced with the same inert liandisc only. Oilier relurns sobjijel to j 20 ,: : restocking charge: After hi) days from ynur purchase dale, please refer to the warranty included with the 

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6. Press the Undo key to "undefine" the 

7. Press the Control and F10 keys to end 
the Macro Definition. 

To create an upper- to-lower case 
convertor assigned to, say, Altemate-R, 
follow the above steps with two excep- 
tions: In Step 2, press Alternate-R in- 
stead of Altemate-A, and in Step 5, 
press 1 instead of 2. 

Desperate Measures 

Single-file copy operations have been 
significantly improved on the Megas, 
but on older STs if you have a single- 
drive system, copying files can be a real 
headache The problem is you can make 
a mistake swapping disks and not real- 
ize it. If a program or file isn't working 
properly, try doing a disk copy instead 
by dragging the drive A icon onto the 
drive B icon and letting go. (Keep in 
mind that this will delete everything on 
the target disk.) A disk copy will proba- 
bly take longer, but it requires fewer 
disk swaps-and has much less margin 
for error If you're having trouble un- 
ARCing the files on your START disk, 
for example, try copying the disk and 
then deleting everything except 
ARCX.TTP and the file you want to un- 
ARC. Also, when you're performing 
single-file copies always write-protect 
the source disk. 


This tip is from a recent jarring 
experience: I went to put an MS-DOS 
boot sector on a friend's disk using 
DC/Format and, curses, the disk direc- 
tory came up garbled! After suffering a 
mild anxiety attack at the thought ot 
ruining the disk, I realized I'd set 
DC/Format to single-sided but the disk 
was double-sided. A quick test 
confirmed that selecting double-sided 
and rewriting an IBM boot sector set the 
disk straight. Got an ST trick or tip to 
share? Send it to the Clipboard, 5H Second 
St., San Francisco CA, 94107. ■ 


TIME is ticking away as a merciless robot force has 
invaded Akaron. Overwhelming odds are stacked against 
you. Put on your seat belt and Warp into battle... 



P.O. BOX 0457-S, ROCHESTER, Ml 48308-0457 

CALL 1-800-777-1690 TO ORDER, or visit your relaller. To order by mall send 

money order (or $39.95 plus $3.00 lor handling. Please allow 3-5 weeks for delivery. 


Fill in coupon and mail to: 
START Subscriptions 
544 Second Street 
San Francisco, CA 94107 



by Walt Wakefield 

Unidentified Flying Objects on Your 
ST. File SAUCERSARC on your 
START disk. Color monitor required. 

Four flying saucers, each a different 
color, maneuver above the surface of an 
unnamed planet. The spaceships 
change directions abruptly as they pass 
over, around and between a foreground 
hill and spire. A scene from a new video 
game? No, it's Assembled Saucers, and if 
you've ever wanted to program great ST 
graphics, this assembly language demo 
will get you started. 

I wrote Assembled Saucers as an ex- 
periment in assembly language pro- 
gramming. The experiment produced, 
in about the same disk space as a stan- 
dard NEOchrome or DEGAS file, a 
"motion picture" complete with back- 
ground music. 

To run Assembled Saucers, copy the 
files SAUCERS.ARC and ARCX.TTP onto 
a blank, formatted disk. Un-ARC 
SAUCERS.ARC following the Disk In- 
structions elsewhere in this issue. At the 
Desktop, double-click on SAUCERS.PRG 
to start the demo (the file 
SAUCERS.DAT must be In the same 
directory). Press the Escape key to exit 
the demo. Assembled Saucers will run 
in low or medium resolution. The con- 
verted Alcyon AS68 source code is in 
the file SAUCERS.S. 

Action the Hard Way 

The STs four low-resolution color 
planes provide an easy way to move im- 

ages around. You can draw an object, 
erase it and redraw it anywhere on the 
screen without disturbing other images 
in other planes. There's a drawback, 
though. Devoting a plane exclusively to 
a moving object cuts the number of 
available colors in half. Giving each of 
four spaceships its own plane would 
leave no colors for the landscape. 

i had plans for all 16 colors, so 
Assembled Saucers accomplishes move- 
ment the hard way. Before placing a 
saucer, the program saves a saucer-sized 
patch of background by copying it from 
screen memory to a buffer When the 
spacecraft is to be moved, the saved 
patch is restored to the screen, wiping 
out the saucer. Then background is 
saved in a new location and the craft is 
placed there. 

A key feature of the program is that 
the saucers move in three dimensions. 
tn addition to horizontal and vertical 
movements, their front-to-rear positions 

relative to one another and to the hill 
and spire change from time to time On 
each pass through the programs main 
loop, there is one chance in 16 that a 
given saucer will attempt to trade posi- 
tions with an object just in front of or 
just behind it. If the two images overlap, 
the swap is not permitted. 

NEOchrome Artwork 

The saucers, spire, foreground hill and 
distant hills were created as elements of 
a NEOchrome picture (Figure I), then 
saved as separate data segments in the 

The demo program transfers the dis- 
tant hills (lower portion of Figure J) 
directly from disk to screen memory 
and stores the other images (Figure 2) in 
a buffer. It then sprinkles stars at ran- 
dom across the sky, places the moon in 
a random position in the upper left, 
adds the hill and spire to the on-screen 
landscape and starts the music. After a 

Atari ST assembly language gives you fast and powerful 
access to the ST's graphics and sound abilities, but 
unraveling its mysteries can be frustrating. In keeping 
with this issue's theme of graphic arts, START brings you 
a colorful and musical graphics demo — complete with 
assembly source code — to show you one way to tap into that 
power and develop your own programming potential. 

68 March 19, 

preliminary background -save at each 
saucer's initial location, the action 

The main-loop sequence goes like 

1. Select a new destination (random 
screen coordinates) and horizontal 
speed (one or two pixels per move) for 
any saucer that has reached its previous 

2. Restore saved backgrounds, begin- 
ning with the nearest saucer; 

3. Perhaps change the front-to-rear posi- 
tions of two or more objects; 

4. Move the saucers, beginning with the 
most distant. The new background is 
saved as part of the move routine; in 
addition, if the saucer is behind the hill 
or spire, a section of the appropriate 
landscape is redrawn on top of it. 

The program uses two blocks of 
screen memory. All changes are made 
on the hidden screen. Then the pro- 
gram swaps screens and updates the 
newly hidden one by copying the re- 
vised picture to it. (1 deliberately limited 
myself to two screens. Adding a third 
screen containing the picture without 
saucers would eliminate the need to 
save and restore background patches. 
This "clean" picture would be trans- 
ferred to the hidden screen prior to 
each redrawing of the saucers. This 
shortens the program only slightly, 
however, and makes little difference in 
execution speed.) 

Do-lt-Yourself Music 

The background music is the result of 
another experiment, this one in "do-it- 
yourself" sound control. A vertical 
blank interrupt routine keeps time and 
reads specially formatted music data. 
Whenever a change in pitch or volume 
is called for, the routine revises a master 
sound table and passes its address to 
the ST's sound chip. 

With this system, three notes can be ► 

Figure h 
picture includes all 
of the elements for 
the Assembled 

screen. The back- 
ground hills in the 
lower portion of the 
picture are trans- 
ferred directly to 
screen memory. 

Figure 2: 

These graphic ele- 
ments are loaded 
into a buffer and 
handled separately 
from the back- 
ground, so that the 
program can then 
move the saucers 
behind or in front of 
the foreground hill 
ond spire. 

StarRay, a new 
game from Spin- 
naker Software, sets 
you flying in the 
jagged hills of on 
alien landscape 
while defending 
your installations. 
This game presents 
a stunning example 
of the kinds of pro- 
grams you can write 
using the graphics 
techniques found in 
Assembled Saucers. 

START The ST Monthly 69 

If A Tree Falls On 
Your Computer, 
Will It 
Make A 

Philosophers disagree. But here at 
intelligent Music, we're convinced. If you 
use Midi Draw, you'll hear it. Just listen. 

Use your mouse to draw on the 
MidiDraw screen and you'll immediately 
hear music. Draw a line and hear a 
mustcalline. Drawashapeand heara 
musical phrase. Drawyourmusicloud. 
Draw it soft. Draw your music as high 
as a twittering piccolo or aslo was a 
grumbling bass. 

You can even use MidiDraw to create 
sounds urtthought by prominent 
philosophers. Because MidiDraw lets 
you make music in a totally new way. 

Sq if you want tO; make a sound, drop 
d tree on your Atari ST today. Or better 
yet, getMidiDraw. 


Call or write us 
today for the dealer 
nearest you. 
MidiDraw runs on 
the Atari 520ST, 
1040ST and MEGA 
series computers. 


Intelligent Music" 
116 North Lake Avenue 
Albany, NY 12206 USA 


Every issue, START features great pro- 
grams on disk. If you bought this 
issue of START without the disk, 
you're missing out! 

CALL (800) 234-7001! 

Assembled Saucers 

started simultaneously, with one alter- 
nately rising and falling in volume while 
another turns on and off intermittently 
and the third comes on strong, then 
fades away like a bell sound. On an 
electronic organ, these three effects are 
called vibrato, pizzicato and sustain. 

Every 1/60 of a second, the vertical 
blank routine adjusts the volumes of in- 
dividual voices according to defined 
patterns. At any point in the music data, 
a voice can be reprogrammed to follow 
a different pattern or to maintain a 
steady volume 

Assembled Saucers 

includes 40 bars of 

music data. 

An infinite variety of patterns is pos- 
sible Assembled Saucers includes five: 
vibrato, pizzicato, and short, medium and 
long sustain. 

The program includes 40 bars of 
music data. The music repeats every 64 
seconds as the flying saucers perform 
their unpredictable maneuvers. 


I hope my little experiment was helpful. 
Assembly language isn't easy to learn, 
but its speed and efficiency are the key 
to faster and more powerful programs. It 
is also the best way to take full advan- 
tage of the ST graphics and sound capa- 
bilities. And before long you'll be 
producing your own game 
masterpiece. ■ 

Walt Wakefield is freelance writer and 
software developer in Portland, Oregon. 
A fanner newspaperman and public re- 
lations counselor, he is the author of 
Home Casino Polier Etc., an ST game 
published by Dubl Dub( Funware. 

70 March 1989 

Panning for Gold 

The PAN BBS for Professional Musicians 

by Jim Pierson-Perry 
START Contributing Editor 

Do you have questions about MIDI or 
new musical equipment? How about 
trading synthesizer patches, samples or 
gear? Or are you a musician in need of 
accurate, timely information about the 
music Industry or job opportunities? 
If so, the PAN BBS may be just what 
you need. 

PAN, the Performing Arts Network, is 
an international electronic community 
of musicians and music industry pro- 
fessionals. It is a powerful BBS system, 
similar to GEnie or Delphi but special- 
izing in the music niche All aspects of 
the music industry are covered, from 
booking tours to instrument technology. 

Going Online with PAN 

Like other major boards, you can access 
PAN all day, every day. You can dial di- 
rect or use a network such as Tymnet or 
Telenet (or Datapak in Canada). You 
can log on at 1200 to 9600 baud and 
you should use standard telecommuni- 
cation settings: 8 bit, 1 stop bit, no par- 
ity and full duplex. 

Standard rates for PAN are $12 per 
hour during the evening and $24 per 
hour during the day (7 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
Eastern, Monday through Friday). There 
is no surcharge for 2400 baud, but 

there's a $10 monthly fee for maintain- 
ing your electronic mailbox. All charges 
must be paid via a major credit card 
(Visa, MasterCard or American Express). 
Some special services carry surcharges, 
such as fax use, airplane sched- 
ules/reservations (OAG-the Online 
Airlines Guide), Associated Press news- 
wires, etc. Finally, there's a one-time sign- 
up fee of $150. (More about this later.) 
The first time you enter PAN, you'll 
be taken on a guided tour of the BBS. 
This explains many of its operations 
and gets your user account organized. 
Answers to questions about PAN serv- 
ices, current rates or hints on using the 
BBS may be found by selecting "Using 
PAN" from the main menu. 

Inside PAN 

When you log in to PAN, the initial 
menu lists the major activity areas, 
which can be divided into general serv- 
ice and special interest areas. Service 
options include: PAN mail, travel serv- 
ices, checking the member directory, 
hints on using PAN, help and a personal 
workspace for storing and creating files. 

PAN mail handles your personal 
communications to other users, as op- 
posed to general questions/answers on 

the forum bulletin boards. You can ad- 
dress letters to a single member or 
maintain mailing lists to speed multiple 
mailings. Other options include send- 
ing telex messages, receiving mail and 
news reports via fax and message trans- 
lations into different languages. 

All users can enter information about 
themselves, their companies, career 
goals, equipment used, etc. into the 
member directory. Searching the direc- 
tory lets you find who is using which 
equipment, people with particular tal- 
ents or interests and other information. 
A similar but separate directory is 
maintained just for synth/MIDI net- 
work users. 

Travel and news services are similar 
to those on other major boards. Profiles 
are available describing particular cities 
and countries. You can use the OAG 
option to view airline flight schedules 
and make trip reservations. From the 
news bureau, you can submit press 
releases and check the Associated Press 
newswire, weather forecasts, music 
industry charts and statistics. 

Three major special interest net- 
works are maintained: business, audio 
and synth/MIDI. The business network 
is primarily for nontechnical members ► 

START The ST Monthly 71 

Online with START 

of the music industry: record compa- 
nies, managers and promoters. The 
audio network handles matters related 
to professional audio needs and in- 
cludes a section on home recording. 
The synth/MlDl network has all the 
goodies for music hardware, software, 
using MIDI and related topics. 

Synths and MIDI 

The synth/MIDl network provides 
several features and services of interest 
to musicians and developers, including 
a database of programs and information 
files, the forum bulletin board, online 
shopping, feedback to magazines and 
manufacturers (equipment and soft- 
ware) and even classified want ads. 

The database contains sections for 
synthesizer patches, sampler data files, 
sequencer information and music files 
and MIDI development as well as pro- 
grams (organized by computer brand) 
for the ST, Mac and IBM. Some ST pro- 
grams include demo versions of new 
MIDI software and patch file format 
converters. The synthesizer patch files 
represent most major instruments and 
are growing constantly. With the recent 
porting of Soft Synth and Sound 
Designer, ST users can download sam- 
ple data files to get all sorts of sonic 

The forum is your source of the most 
up-to-date information on MIDI and 
music technology. Candid reports on 
new equipment and software, coverage 
of trade shows, hints and tips for all 
levels of users and more are available 
here. As forum users include all the 
major manufacturers and software de- 
velopers, you can get information here 
before other boards pick it up. This in- 
cludes representatives from the IMA 
(International MIDI Association) and 
MMA (MIDI Manufacturers Associa- 
tion), our MIDI watchdog organizations. 

For more specific problems, praise 
or questions, you can use the online 
support features. Currently 12 hotlines 
provide a direct pipeline to software de- 

velopers, 15 are for equipment manu- 
facturers and three are for trade publi- 
cations. Others link to the IMA, MMA 
and PAN. 

PAN even lends a hand when you 
want to buy or sell equipment or are 
advertising your services. The electronic 
classified ad section is a place where 
you can list items for sale, items wanted 
or services offered (or needed) at no 
charge -a great way to trade up your 
equipment. At a more professional level, 
Synthony Music offers an online shop- 
ping service and catalog with equip- 
ment descriptions. 

Is It For Me? 

With all it has going for it, what is miss- 
ing from PAN? Well, there are no games, 
picture files, hints for adventure players, 
online encyclopedias, font files for word 
processors or Music Studio song files. 
PAN is set up to accommodate musi- 
cians and the professional music indus- 
try, not the general computer user 

Comparisons are inevitable between 
PAN and other MIDI-related boards 
such as MIDI-Net. While PAN is the 
more expensive option, it is also richer 
in resources. Ignoring the business as- 
pects, available only through PAN, 
the comparison comes down to data- 
base files, hotlines and the bulletin 
board messages. 

For the casual user, stay with full- 
service boards. If you're a dedicated 
hobbyist or musician, however, and 
want to be in the forefront of the MIDI 
revolution, then PAN is the way to go. In 
my opinion, PAN provides the most ac- 
curate and timely information, drawing 
upon a wider representation of manu- 
facturers, developers and support 
organizations. Currently, ST users won't 
find too many application programs 
on PAN, but will find a large number of 
usable patch and sample data files 
Hopefully the ST userbase will improve. 
Plans are for Atari to enter PAN and 
possibly have its own users group, or at 
least a hotline. 

Special Offer 

Remember the $150 one-time signup 
fee? Well, START and PAN have gotten 
together to welcome new ST users with 
musical interests. During the month of 
February, any ST user who joins PAN 
will have the signup fee waived, just en- 
ter START when asked for your pass- 
word. This is an excellent way to find 
out for yourself what PAN has to offer 
the ST musician. 

Here's how to reach the PAN BBS: for 
direct access, dial (617) 576-0862. 
When you connect, enter 1 or 2 and 
press Return. At the "USERNAME:" 
prompt, enter your name or handle; at 
the "PASSWORD:" prompt, enter START. 

Going via Telenet, dial your local 
number. When you connect, press Re- 
turn three times. At the "*" prompt, 
enter C PAN, then follow the usemame 
and password instructions above. 

On Tymnet, dial your local number. 
When a series of random characters 
appears on your screen, type "A". At the 
"PLEASE LOG IN" prompt, type PAN 
and press Return; then follow the user- 
name and password instructions above. 

Enjoy yourself. Contribute to the ST 
database if you can and drop me a note 
on PAN mail (P1ERSONPERRY) to let 
me know what you think of PAN! ■ 

Contributing Editor Jim Pierson-Perry is 
a research chemist and semiprofessional 
musician. He lives in Elkton, Maryland. 


PAN (The Performing 
Arts Network), P.O. Box 

162, Skipjack, PA 19474, 
(215) 584-0300. 

Telenet, 12490 Sunrise 
Valley Drive, Reston, VA 
22096, (800) 336-0437. 

Tymnet, McDonnell 

Douglas Network Systems 
Company, National Cus- 
tomer Service, 2070 Chain 
Bridge Road, Vienna, VA 

72 March 1989 

In Prolog 

Stepping Up to Prolog 

by Joseph Schmuller 

Follow along with this exciting 
introduction to Artificial Intelligence. 
File MASH. ARC on your START disk. 
Welcome to the first installment of a 
continuing feature on the Prolog lan- 
guage, Prolog is the basis for some of the 
most exciting developments in Artificial 
Intelligence today. My goal is to 
demystify these developments and 
make it possible for every ST owner to 
experiment with them. 

There are two commercial im- 
plementations of Prolog now available 
for the ST: XPRO from Rational Visions 
and MProlog from Logicware, Inc. Both 
were reviewed by Christopher Chabris 
in the Spring 1988 issue of START 

I'll be using XPRO because it gives 
programmers the right combination of 
power and price. It's a complete im- 
plementation of the accepted standard 
for Prolog (the so-called "Edinburgh 
syntax"), and it has some useful exten- 
sions beyond this standard, as we'll 
eventually see 

XPRO does have drawbacks, two in 
fact. First, it's a plain vanilla 
application-you don't work with it 
through GEM, although you can con- 
struct GEM applications with it. Sec- 
ond, the documentation is extremely 
short; it's virtually a requirement that 

you work with an outside reference. 
This series of articles will hopefully 
help fulfill that requirement. 

(Editor's note: In the Spring 1988 issue, 
START published GProlog by Gene Weiss, a 
bare-bones Implementation of Prolog. 
GProlog will let you experiment with Prolog 
and work with the examples in this article, 
refer to the GProlog documentation on 
slight variations on syntax and variable 
treatment If you're missing the Spring 1988 
issue you can order it with disk for $14.95 
by writing to START Back Issues, 544 Sec- 
ond St, San Francisco, CA 94107. If you 
have a CompuServe account, you can 
download GProlog with documentation 
from Antic Online's February Software 
Shelf Log onto CompuServe and type GO 

Working with Prolog 

Prolog stands for Programming in Logic. 
It is usually used for non-numerical 
programming and is most appropriate 
for expressing relationships between 
objects. Prolog is primarily a declarative 
language rather than a procedural one. 
This means that when you use Prolog to 
solve a problem, you tell Prolog what to 
do, rather than how to do it. 

You interact with Prolog in much the 
same way that you work with a data- 

base. You type a query and Prolog looks 
at a set of facts and rules and returns an 
answer. The major part of Prolog pro- 
gramming is using a text editor to create 
the set of facts and rules in a text file. 
Then you tell Prolog to consult this file 
so that it can search the facts and rules 
in order to respond to queries. The con- 
sult operation copies the contents of the 
text file into a structure called the Prolog 
database (some sources, including the 
XPRO documentation, call this a know- 
ledge base) 

Let's examine some of the kinds of 
facts that you can put in a Prolog data- 
base and what you can do with them. 
Suppose we want to represent this in- 
formation about a small group of mili- 
tary personnel: 

Sherman Potter is a Colonel. 

Hawkeye Pierce is a Captain. 

Charles Winchester is a Major. 

B.J. Hunnicutt is a Captain. 

Max Klinger is a Corporal. 

Here's a way to write these state- 
ments in Prolog: 

is_a(max_klinger,corporal). ► 

START The ST Monthly 73 

Programming In Prolog 

There are several things to immedi- 
ately take note of- First, there are no up- 
percase letters in the Prolog statements; 
a word that begins with an uppercase 
letter is a variable. Second, Prolog does 
not ordinarily understand separated 
words, so the underscore is used to join 
the words together. Third, there can be 
no spaces between "is_a" and the 
opening parenthesis. Finally, each Pro- 
log statement must end with a period. 

In each statement, "is_a" is called 
the functor, and the expressions inside 
the parentheses are called the arguments. 
It doesn't matter what order you use for 
the arguments, as long as you're consis- 
tent throughout. Together, the functor 
and arguments form a clause. Clauses 
like these are called facts. The number 
of arguments associated with a functor 
is said to be the arity of that functor; 
each of these functors, then, has an 
arity of 2. 

I put these five facts into an ASCII 
file called MASH; the completed file is 
on your START disk if you don't want to 
type this information in. Copy 
MASH.ARC and ARCXTTP onto a 
blank, formatted disk and un-ARC the 
MASH.ARC, following the disk instruc- 
tions elsewhere in this issue. If you're 
using GProlog, you'll have to type your 
queries into the file and save it with a 
.PRO extender, since GProlog does not 
have a command line. 

If you're using XPro, you'll see a 
prompt that looks like this: 

Tell Prolog to consult the file: 
?- consult(mash). 

Note the period at the end of the 
statement. Press Return and Prolog will 
put the facts in MASH into the Prolog 
database Now you can form queries. 

At this point, you can ask if Sherman 
Potter is a colonel: 

?- is_a(sherman_potter,colonel). 

Prolog will search its database for 

this fact, and when it finds it, it will 
write "Yes" on the screen. You can ask 
what rank Charles Winchester happens 
to be: 

?- is_a(charles_winchester,X). 

Notice the uppercase letter as the 
second argument in the query. The sec- 
ond argument (which holds the military 
rank) will be a variable; Prolog will 
search its database and come up with a 
value for the variable. In this case 
"major" will be returned as the value of 
the variable X, so Prolog's response is: 

X = major 

Prolog is the basis 

for some of the 

most exciting 

developments in Al. 

When Prolog finds a value for a vari- 
able, it has instantiated the variable. The 
value is then known as an instantiation 
of the variable. 

Ask who holds the rank of captain 
and the whole transaction would look 
like this on the screen: 

?- is_a(X,captain). 

X = hawkeye_pierce 

Again, Prolog found this instantiation 
of X by searching its database until it 
found a fact whose functor is "is_a" 
and whose second argument is "cap- 
tain"; it took the first argument of that 
fact as the instantiation of X. If you 
want to know who else is a captain, 
type a semicolon after Prolog's response. 
This signals Prolog to search for another 
fact which satisfies the query. Prolog 
will answer: 

X = b_j_hunnicutt 

If you type another semicolon, Pro- 
log will answer "No," as there are no 
more facts in the database that fit the 
conditions of the query Prolog will 
always answer "No" to a query if there 
are no facts in its database that fit: 

?- is_a(radar__o_reilly,corporal). 

Prolog gives us this answer because 
there isn't any information about this 
person in the database. 

Going Beyond the Given Information 

So far you've seen that Prolog lets you 
put facts into a database and then query 
the database to find out about those 
facts. While this might be mildly enter- 
taining, it's not very helpful. To begin to 
see why Prolog is useful, let's answer the 
question "Does Hawkeye Pierce outrank 
Max Klinger?" First we need to give Pro- 
log some information about ranks, so 
we'll put these facts into MASH: 







Next Prolog needs a rule to follow to 
use this information: 

outranks(X,Y) :- is_a(X,Z), 


This rule reads "to prove that person 
X outranks person Y, prove that the 
rank of person X is T, prove that the 
rank of person Y is 'W, and then prove 
that Z is higher than W." In this case, 
"proving" something simply means that 
Prolog has to go through its database 
and find a relevant fact. The commas at 
the end of each clause are always read 
as "and." Another way to read this rule 
is to interpret":-" as "is implied by." 
The "is implied by" symbol separates 
the rule into two parts. The part preced- 
ing ":-" is called the head or conclusion, 

74 March 1989 

and the part following":-" is the tail or 
condition. Incidentally, Prolog's symbol 
for "or" is the semicolon, which is per- 
fectly consistent with the way we've 
been using it. 

In our outranks rule, when you plug 
in hawkeye_pierce for X and max_ 
klinger for Y, Prolog: 

1. Searches its database for "is__ 
a(hawkeye_pierce,2)" and instantiates 
Z to "captain." 

2 Searches for "is_a(max_ 
klinger.W)" and instantiates W to 

3. Searches far ''higher_than(cap- 
tain, corporal)" and finds that this fact is 
in the database. 

4. Answers "Yes" because all the 
clauses in the tail have been proven. 
Another way to say this is that they all 
succeeded. Had any of the clauses not 
been proven (i.e., had any of the clauses 
failed), Prolog would have answered 

The important point here is that we 

didn't have to have a fact in the database 
which explicitly stated 

ou Iran ks( haw keye_pierce,max_ 

Instead, we gave the database some 
facts and a rule and turned Prolog loose. 

Here are two other ways to use the 
outranks rule: 

?- outranks(charles_winchester,X). 

?- outranks (A, B). 

Type the first query in and type a 
semicolon after each response. The sec- 
ond query means "who outranks 
whom?" Prolog will respond with a pair 
of instantiations, and if you type a semi- 
colon it will give you another pair. Pro- 
log will eventually show every possible 
pair of names such that the first out- 
ranks the second. 

Things to Come 

In this article, we've introduced some 
essential Prolog terminology, as well as 

the style of interacting with and using 
this language. But we've barely touched 
on Prolog's power. In future install- 
ments, we'll see what logic programming 
really is all about, and how it can be 
used for natural language processing, 
rapid prototyping and expert system 
development. We'll also look at object- 
oriented programming in Prolog and 
use XPRO to develop GEM appli- 
cations. ■ 

Joseph Schmuller is a Cognitive Scientist 
with the Expert Systems group at CDM 
Federal Programs Corporation. 


XPRO, $39.95. Rational 
Visions, 71 11 W.Indian 
School Road, Suite 131, 
Phoenix, AZ 85033, (602) 
846-0371 . 

MProlog, $199. Logic- 
ware, Inc., 5915 Airport 
Road, Suite 200, Missis- 

sauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 
ITI, (416)672-0300. 


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News, Views and 
a Mini-Review 

by Jim Pierson-Perry 
START Contributing Editor 

Another month, a whole new bushel of 
MIDI goodies, many from newcomers to 
the ST market. It's always good to wel- 
come Fresh talent; by the way, my cur- 
rent count puts the number of ST MIDI 
programs over the 200 mark! We'll also 
take a look at the Astra MIDI Box and 
how patch editor programs are branch- 
ing out from synthesizers and now in- 
clude effects devices. 

New Players 

Leading off is MusicSoft, with a collec- 
tion of patch editor programs for the 
Alpha Juno, MT-32, D-10, ESQ-1, Kl 
and K4 operator DX synthesizers. 
MusicSoft also has the MIDI Drummer 
program, the first drum machine se- 
quencer program for the ST. 

A patch editor for the Yamaha TX81Z 
and DX11 marks the first release from 
Musicode. In addition to editing, the 
program contains an integrated se- 
quencer to test patches in actual play. 
Sequences can be saved as standard 
MIDI files (Level 0). 

Alfred Publishing has released two 
sets of music education programs for 
the ST: Practical Theory (three disks) 
and Music Achievement (six disks). 
Sandy Feldstein is the author of both 
packages, which are targeted at a high 
school/college entry-level audience, ei- 

Ty pica I pattern edit 
screen from the 
MIDI Drummer pro- 
gram by MusicSoft. 
The setup shown 
was customized for 
drum machine. The 
different numbers in 
the pattern grid 
correspond to 
preset velocity 
values to odd 

Desk File Pattern Song Song Etlit Clock Hot e 1 c ngth "control 

Z<" Pxr Kick ID 7 

Hood Snare IB * 

Close Hi Nat IE * 

Hid Kl Hat 10 * 

Open Hi Hat :E * 

Hand Clops :f * 

Lrg Don Bell IB * 

Iro Wd Block !H * 

J.B" Pur Ton II » 

14" Dbl Ton !J * 

16" Pur Ton :K * 

Electron Ton :L 3 

Hide Cunbal EH + 

Crash Cynbal :H * 

Gated Snare :0 5 

d b o g b a a s 

| nil 

i ■ ■ 


25 29 11 17 

ther for self-study or in a classroom set- 
ting. They come with an attractive, com- 
prehensive set of textbooks and 

Finally, Johnsware has introduced 
the MIDI Boss, a MIDI system master 
control program. This can send pro- 
gram change commands, sysex data and 
other custom commands to any MIDI 
devices in your system with a single 

From Old Friends 

5teinberg/Jones has released another 
patch editor in their Synthworks series. 
This one is for the Kawai Kl and com- 
patibles. Sonus now offers several patch 
editors: ESQ-l/SQ-80 Design, D50 
Design and MT-32 Design. 

Savant Audio has released Edit-DSS, 
the first dedicated sample editor for the 
Korg DSS-1. Features include audition- 
ing edits through the Atari monitor 
speaker, librarian functions and a patch 

SynthView Ml from Synergy 
Resources, is the first librarian for the 
new Korg Ml "do-everything" digital 
music workstation. An upgrade is 
planned for the near future to add edit- 
ing capabilities along with the initial 
graphical librarian features. 

That Synching Feeling 

Those looking for a reliable way to tie 
their tape decks and MIDI sequencers 
together may want to check out the PPS- 
100 from J. L. Cooper. This is a rack- p- 

START The ST Monthly 77 

The ST/MIDI Connection 








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Shot of the play 
screen for Dr. T's 
Keyboard Controlled 
Sequencer vl.6 run- 
ning with the Phan- 
tom installed. Note 
the SMPTE time dis- 
play in the lower 
right corner. 

mount hardware device for SMFTE to 
MIDI synchronization and also func- 
tions as a SMPTE event generator. It 
reads and writes all SMPTE formats, 
converts SMPTE to MIDI via Song Posi- 
tion Pointer messages and can option- 
ally generate MIDI Time Code data. 

The newest releases of Dr. T's KCS 
1.6 and Level II sequencers have im- 
proved support for The Phantom, his 
SMPTE synchronization interface. 
Earlier versions could take over a min- 
ute to chase and lock to tape when us- 
ing the sequencer at high clock resolu- 
tions (e,g. 240 ppqn [pulses per quarter 
note]). The original version was fine for 
working at resolutions of up to 96 
ppqn. The Phantom also provides a 
software controlled second MIDI Out 
port. MIDI channels can be assigned to 
either the ST or Phantom Out ports (or 
both). With the release of The Phan- 
tom, Dr. T's previous synch box, The 
Model S, has been discontinued. 

On The Horizon 

Here's some advance information to 
whet your appetite All of these pro- 
grams are expected to be released in 
early 1989 in time for the Winter 
NAMM meeting. TurboSynth, the new 
blockbuster sample creation/editing 
program from Digidesign, is being 
ported from the Mac to the ST. 

Hybrid Arts is releasing Edit Track, 
basically SMPTE Track without the 
SMPTE features. This will give EA a 
professional- level sequencer for those 

not needing a dedicated tape synch de- 
vice All of their MIDI Track series pro- 
grams are being upgraded to work with 
MIDI standard files, even those in Mac- 
Binary format. 

Finally, look for Mark of the Unicorn 
and Opcode to enter the ST market. 
These companies are currently at the 
top of the Mac MIDI market and should 
provide excellent new products for the 

Affecting Effects 

With MIDI firmly entrenched as the 
standard for controlling synthesizers 
and similar musical instruments, the 
next wave is to extend MIDI control into 
effects devices, those ubiquitous boxes 
that provide reverb, chorus, delay, dis- 
tortion and all the other special effects 
to color and add character to the basic 
synthesizer sounds. Already, many such 
MIDl-equipped devices are available for 
hobbyist and professional applications. 

The basic MIDI implementation is to 
use program change commands to flip 
from one preset to another. At more ad- 
vanced levels, real-time MIDI control 
may be used to change the nature and 
intensity of the sound effect. Examples 
include varying the reverb decay rate or 
echo delay time. Typically, these devices 
are big on power and short on front- 
pane! programming controls and are 
ideal candidates for a patch editor-type 
computer program. 

Several companies have begun 
releasing patch editor programs for the 

more popular effects devices. Dr. T dis- 
tributes one for the Lexicon PCM-70 as 
part of the popular Caged Artist series. 
Their latest creation, due out around 
NAMM time, will handle four different 
multieffects devices: the Lexicon LXP-1, 
Digitech DSP-128, Alesis Quadraverb 
and Yamaha SPX90. Johnsware offers 
fully GEM-compatible programs to con- 
trol the DSP-128, KorgSDD-2000 digital 
delay and the Cooper MSB + MIDI 
switchbay. The DSP-128 (a popular 
beast) is also covered by the DSP En- 
hancer from DataSound, which even 
provides a random patch generation 
Function for effects. 

Astra MIDI Box 

The Astra MIDI Box is a solution to two 
problems facing the ST MIDI user: a 
need for multiple MIDI Out ports and 
the infamous Out/Thru port combina- 
tion. The ST has a single MIDI Out port, 
which is fine for driving a single syn- 
thesizer, but if you want to use any 
more equipment, you must daisy-chain 
the components or use a Thru box. The 
daisy chain option works only if your 
equipment has sufficient MIDI Thru 
connections, which is not always the 
case (eg. Casio CZ-101 and most drum 
machines). A Thru box takes the origi- 
nal MIDI Out data and sends it to 
several connection ports (typically four 
or eight per box). Each device hooked 
to one of these ports sees its own copy 
of the original MIDI Out data. 

More serious is that the ST MIDI Out 
port is hard-wired so that it also carries 
MIDI Thru data, thus violating the MIDI 
hardware protocol. As long as you use 
proper MIDI cables you'll have no prob- 
lem; otherwise you stand an excellent 
chance of driving your synthesizers 

Connecting the Astra MIDI Box to 
your ST provides one MIDI In, two 
MIDI Thru and three MIDI Out ports. 
The Thru and Out signals are decou- 
pled from the ST output. The MIDI Box 
goes a step beyond a Thru box, however. 

78 March 1989 

by providing both multiple Out and 
Thru ports. If your system is large 
enough, you can hang a Thru box off 
each MIDI Box Out port and connect 
up to 24 synths or devices at once. 

The MIDI Box is compatible with all 
ST MIDI software Note that each Out 
port provides an identical signal You 
cannot assign MIDI channels to flow to 
particular ports as with the proprietary 


software-controlled multiple Outs 
provided by The Phantom or 
Midiplexer interfaces. The MIDI Box 
comes in a sturdy ST-gray plastic box 
(about 6-by-5-by-3 inches). It is a pas- 
sive device that just routes MIDI signals, 
and does not require a power supply. If 
you use more than a single MIDI instru- 
ment, the Astra MIDI Box may be just 
what you need to help put your system 
together ■ 

Practical Theory 
Series $125, Music 
Achievement Series, 

$199.95. Alfred Publishing 
Company, Inc., 16380 
Roscoe Blvd., Von Nuys, CA 
91410, (818|89l-5999 

MIDI Box, $59.95. Astro 
Systems, Inc., 2500 South 
Fairview, Unit L, Santa Ana, 
CA 92704.(7I4| 549-2141. 

DSP-128 Enhancer, 

$99.95. DataSound, 5056 
les Chateaux, Dallas, TX 
75235, (214) 521-6723. 

TurboSynth, no price set. 
Digidesign, 1360 Willow 
Run, Suite 101, Menlo Park, 
CA 94025, (415)327-8811. 

KCSver. 1.6,5249; KCS 
Level II, $325; PCM-70 
Editor $149; The Phan- 
tom, $249. Dr. T's Music 
Software, 2200 Boylston 
Street, Suite 306, Chestnut 
Hill, MA 02167, (617) 

Edit Track Midiplexer 

$299. Hybrid Arts, Inc., 
11920 West Olympic Blvd., 
bs Angeles, CA 90064, 
(213) 826-3777. 

PPS-100, $595. J.L. 
Cooper, 1931 Pontius Ave- 
nue, West Los Angi 
90025, (213) 473-8771 


DSPatcher, $74.95; 
MIDI Boss, $74.95; 
MSBehove, $74.95; 
SDDemon, $74.95. 
Johnsware, 5802 42nd Ave- 
nue, Hyatrsville, MD 20781, 

Mark Of The Unicorn, 

222 Third Street, Cambridge, 
MA 02142, (617)576-2760. 

TXS1Z/DX11 Voice 

$99. Musicode, 5575 Balti- 
more Drive, Suite 105-127, 
La Mesa, CA 92042, (619) 

Alpha Juno Editor/ 
Librarian, $99.95; 
D-10/110/20 Editor/ 
Librarian, $99 95; D-50 
Editor/Librarian, $99 95; 
DX 4 Op Editor/ 
Librarian, $99.95; ESQ- 
1 /SQ-80 Editor/ 
Librarian, $99 .95; Kl 
$99 .95; MIDI Drummer, 
$99.95; MT-32 Editor/ 
Librarian, $99.95. Music- 
Soft, 1560 Meadowbrook, 
Altadena, CA 91001. (818) 

Opcode, 1024 Hamilton 
Court, Menlo Park, CA 
94025. (415) 321-8977. 

Edlt-DSS, $250. Sovont 
Audio, 2140 Bellmore Ave- 
nue, Bellmore, NY 11710, 
(516) 826-6336. 

D-50 Design, $149.95; 
ESQ-1 /SQ-80 Design, 
$149.95, MT-32 Design, 

$129.95. Sonus Corpora- 
tion, 21430 Strathern Street, 
Suite H, Canoga Park, CA 
91304, (818)702-0992. 


Steinberg/Jones, 17700 
Raymer Stteet, Suite 1001, 
Northridge,CA91325, (811 

SynthView Ml, $79.95. 

Synergy Resources, 754 
North Bolton Avenue, Indi- 
anapolis, IN 46219, (317) 



Every issue, START features great 
programs on disk. If you bought this 
issue of START without the disk, 
you're missing out! 

START is available with the disk 
for $14.95, but for those of you who 
want to read START first, it's available 
without the disk for $4. 

If you want thejiiN version of 
START, you can order the companion 
disk by calling the Disk Desk toll- 
free at (800) 234-7001. Our Cus- 
tomer Service specialists are on duty 
from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Pacific 
time Or you can order your disk by 
mail using the order form inserted 
into this issue. Each disk is $10,95 
plus $2.00 shipping and handling. 

CALL (800) 
234-7001 ! 

START The ST Monthly 79 




Start Recording Music 
For A Song! 

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A Personal Recording Studio 

Because Master Tracks Jr. combines professional record- 
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GFA BASIC Programmer's Reference Guide, 
Concepts in Programming, Programming with GFA BASIC 3.0 

reviewed by David Plotkin, 
START Contributing Editor 

GFA BASIC is a powerful programming 
language, but its manuals have not always 
been everything they should have been. 
MichTron has followed GFA BASIC with 
the publication of several additional 
volumes. Below, however, I've reviewed 
books, which are a marked improve- 
ment upon the manuals. (Editor's note: 
David Plotkin reviewed GFA BASIC 3.0 in 
the January 1989 issue of START.) 

GFA BASIC Programmer's 
Reference Guide, Volume I 

by George W. Miller 

484 pages (plus appendices), $29.95 softcover 

The GFA BASIC Programmer's Reference 
Guide, Volume I is a large book that pro- 
vides a wealth of information about GFA 
BASIC, easily the most widespread 
"user's" language for the ST. While this 
book doesn't contain much new informa- 
tion, it's well organized, very well written 
and sheds some light on otherwise 
poorly covered topics. 

The first chapter covers the GFA edi- 
tor in detail It duplicates the information 
in the manual in large pan here but is 
easier to follow and arranged better This 
chapter also contains hints and tips about 
using the editor that are not in the 

The second chapter lasts for about 
250 pages, documenting every GFA 
BASIC command. Again, it's largely a 
restatement of what's in the manual, but 
it's written better Unlike the manual, the 
commands are arranged alphabetically, 
making it easier to locate the information 
on a particular command. The program- 
ming examples all work except for a few 
well-documented cases, and related key- 
words are listed so that you can refer to 
them for more information. 

Chapters 3, 4 and 5 take you through 
all the steps needed to construct eye- 
catching demos and even games. 
Graphics, animation and sound are ex- 
plored in detail, as are saving screens to 
disk, page flipping, GET and PUT anima- 
tion, the sound and WAVE commands 
and sprites. Many sample programs are 
included, such as a kaleidoscope program 
and a complete shape editor, and each 
section of code is explained clearly. In 
fact, most of the book consists of com- 
mented programs. (I believe that the best 
way to leam how to program is by reading 
other people's (commented) programs.) 

Chapter 6 contains a complete 
telecommunications program. Not only 
is the code commented so that you can 
leam how to handle ports, baud rates, 
etc., but the program itself is very useful 

and worth more than the price of the 
book if you're a telecommunicator You 
can customize the program completely, 
using the autodial directory, function key 
configuration and macro scripts! You can 
even run another program from within 
the telecommunications program using 
GFA's EXEC command. 

The final sections of the book are the 
appendices that document calling BIOS, 
XBIOS and GEMDOS functions from 
within GFA. Each function has a para- 
graph telling what it does and a sample 
of how to call it Since this is somewhat 
complicated, the examples are a big help. 

1 like the Programmer's Reference Guide. 
It's so well-written that even the minor 
typographical errors (which will be 
cleaned up in the second printing) don't 
detract from its overall quality. George 
Miller, MichTron's director of product sup- 
port, obviously labored long and hard 
over it. 

As a reference guide, it works well. It 
is important to note that intermediate to 
advanced programmers won't find a lot of 
new information here, and there really 
aren't any "how the heck did 'e do that" 
type of programming surprises in the 
book. What there is is a well-organized 
and useful reference work that will make 
using GFA BASIC easier to anyone and ► 

START The ST Monthly 81 

Review GFA BASIC Book.', 

impart a lot of new information to 

Concepts in Programming: 
An Intermediate programmer's 
tutorial for GFA BASIC 2.0 and 

by Gottfried P. Engels 

270 pages, $24.95 softcover 

Concepts in Programming is a book which 
purports to cover GFA BASIC on an inter- 
mediate level. It contains quite a bit of 
useful information, however; much of the 
book is devoted to program listings and 
explanations of 3D graphics and a text 

The opening section of the book 
attempts to discuss the advantages of us- 
ing structured programming methods. It 
succeeds fairly well, especially since the 
commands in GFA BASIC lend them- 
selves toward structured programming. 
Such concepts as Procedures, Functions, 
DO WHILE, CASE etc. let you build your 
program in small, uncomplicated, testable 
sections. One problem is that the book 
shows several bad examples for solving a 
particular programming problem without 
demonstrating any good solutions! Over- 
all, though, the diagramming techniques 
and example programs using GFA struc- 
tured programming commands are good 
and illustrate the required points. 

The first section also shows more 
efficient ways of handling memory moves 
and disk accesses. It also benchmarks 
various loop commands and details the 
structures of arrays. This really has noth- 
ing to do with structured programming, 
but it is interesting. Much of this section 
shows ways to get around the limitations 
of GFA BASIC 2.0 (no var passing to 
procedures, lack of a SORT command 
and no ELSElF)-which are all fixed in 

Section 2 introduces a 3D graphics 
program. It attempts (briefly) to discuss 
some of the mathematics, which are not 
trivial, but doesn't quite pull it off. Some 
short example programs follow, as well as 

a statement of the equations, commands 
and concepts used, followed by the de- 
tails of the program itself. This program 
can show a wire-frame shape (with some 
hidden line removal) and lets you 
manipulate the shape (turning, moving 
stretching) and even build a new shape If 
you're interested in 3D programming 
you'll find this section quite interesting. 
The methods used are discussed, but be 
warned that this program is quite com- 
plex. It covers everything, including load- 
ing and saving data, and even discusses 
some limited tricks to speed up 

Section 3, the text editor, is over 100 
pages long and presents a tool for editing 
text that includes scrolling with mouse 
and keyboard, inserting and deleting 
lines, and block operations. Once again, a 
limited number of nicks are presented for 
manipulating text quickly. Methods 
demonstrated include use of BMOVE, the 
VT-52 emulation commands, responding 
to menus and keypresses, and the ad- 
vanced use of pointers to "move" text 
around the screen without actually mov- 
ing it around in memory-which can be 
done very quickly Much of what is co- 
vered here is interesting, but this section 
has two problems- First, quite a bit of the 
program is not discussed (due to space 
limitations), and even with what is dis- 
cussed, the section is simply too long 
and the example program is too complex. 
By the rime you've studied the entire list- 
ing in detail, through, you have forgotten 
much of what went on earlier in the 

Concepts in Programming seems to be 
unsure about what audience to address. 
The first section can be of help to some- 
one who is not too experienced, but the 
last two sections are likely to overwhelm 
anyone who is not an experienced pro- 
grammer Further, these two sections are 
of very narrow interest. 

The book may be of some use to 
someone who would like to know some 
useful tricks. The value of the book is 
definitely the learning experience and not 

the programs included (the 3D graphics 
program is not a full- functioning utility 
and there are much better text editors). 
Much of the book is filled with complex 
listings that are hard to follow, and aren't 
very conducive to teaching programming 
concepts very well. There are many 
things that can help you program better 
and this book covers some of them, but 
in a format that makes it difficult to leam 
the material. 

Programming with GFA BASIC 3.0 

by Gottfried P. Engles and Markus C. Gorgens 
366 pages, $24.95 softcover 
Program disk: $15.95 

Programming with GFA BASIC 3.0 fills in 
the gaps in the user manual in a mostly 
clear, concise way, and should be on the 
bookshelf of anyone even remotely 
interested in using the advanced features 
of GFA BASIC 3.0- (Editor's note: David 
Ploikin reviewed GFA BASIC 3.0 in the 
January 1989 issue of START.) In addition 
to its well-written text. Programming with 
GFA BASIC 3.0 has many example pro- 
grams which are well-commented and 
very useful in understanding some of the 
programming techniques of this powerful 

The first major section of the book 
deals with structured programming. One 
major improvement of 3.0 over 2.0 is the 
increased variety of loop, decision and 
Procedure/Fun crion commands. Several 
illustrative examples show how the new 
loop and decision commands help you 
program more efficiendy. This section 
also shows how the ability to pass varia- 
bles to a Procedure, as well as to multi- 
line Functions, increases programming 
power The sample program demonstrates 
these principles apdy with a matheman- 
cal function evaluator that you could use 
to create your own spreadsheet program. 

Handling of variable types and sorting 
arrays is the subject of the next section. 
Not only does GFA BASIC 3.0 include 
two different types of sorts, but there's a 
variety of options in using the sort com- 

82 March 1989 

mands. Programming with GFA BASIC 3.0 
explains these options and demonstrates 
how to use the sort commands to set up 
a database Pointer commands are directly 
supported by 3.0, and these are also ex- 
plained in this section. Pointer operators 
are very important to GEM, and having 
them available makes it easier to deal 
with Menus, windows, dialog boxes, etc. 

Working with numbers in a bitwise 
manner is the subject of the next section. 
Although this section is not of much use 
to the average programmer, the information 
contained here allows for significant in- 
creases in execution speed. 

The next subject is Line A calls, which 
not only give you more flexibility but are 
often much faster than the equivalent 
commands built into GFA BASIC 3.0. 
Examples of clipping, line drawing, pat- 
tern filling and point setting and testing 
are all demonstrated. Some explanations 
are convoluted, but experimentation 
should help clear things up. A large demo 
program shows how to implement two 
different kinds of splines (curves drawn 
between specified points). 

Section 6 is about debugging your 
programs. Although the manual itself 
does a good job of explaining the debug- 
ging commands, this section is valuable 
because it includes a sample subroutine 
which can be accessed after every com- 
mand. The subroutine simply returns to 
the main program unless a key has been 
pressed, at which nine it gives a series of 
reports of variable values and other infor- 
marion. After the section on debugging 
there is a short section on using assembly 
language in your programs. 

Section 8 is easily the most valuable 
part of the book and is worth the price 
all by itself. It is here that all the AES 
functions concerning dialog boxes are ex- 
plained in great detail, with three exam- 
ple programs. GFA BASIC 3.0 supports 
AES functions in a much more straight- 
forward fashion than earlier versions. 

Further, the GFA BASIC 3.0 package 
includes a resource construction set, 
which makes it very easy to build dialog 

boxes. Not only does this part of Pro- 
gramming with GFA BASIC give hints on 
using the resource construction set, but it 
also provides complete examples on using 
all the different types of objects which 
can appear in a dialog box, including text, 
buttons, editable text, icons and sliders. 
The explanations are superb. 

A useful utility included in this 
section is a program to create icons (for 
including in a dialog box) from DEGAS 

Anyone even 
remotely interested 

in using the 

advanced features of 

GFA BASIC 3.0 should 

have Programming 

with GFA BASIC 3.0 

format graphics. These icons are then 
saved to disk as a resource and can be 
merged into a resource you're building 
with the resource construction set. This 
is the simplest way to include graphics in 
your dialog boxes. 

You can also use a resource construc- 
tion set to create pull-down menus. Of 
course, you can create menus within GFA 
itself (and it will be easier if you use the 
Menu-builder program published in the 
December 1988 issue of START), but if 
you do create menus with an RCS, they 
need to be managed differently by the 
application. The last part of this section 
shows how to do just that. It also shows 
how to have the menus appear in the 
middle of the screen or even pop up 
from the bottom of the screen. Unfor- 
tunately, these sample programs tend to 
lock up the computer 

A "resource analyzer" completes the 

section. This program can load a re- 
source, let you work with it and save a 
GFA BASIC list file to disk that will load 
the resource and set necessary values. 
This program doesn't work very well, 
however The screen layout is poor and 
buttons in the resource don't show up in 
the analyzed file 

The next secrion gives excellent exam- 
ples of how to work with windows, in- 
cluding setring them up and responding 
to mouse-clicks. This section is especially 
valuable, since it's much easier to work 
with windows in GFA BASIC 3.0 (due to 
the built-in AES functions) than in earlier 

The last section of the book shows 
how to use GDOS with GFA BASIC and 
includes a 3D function plotter that can 
output to your printer Extensive appen- 
dices give detailed information on new or 
changed commands. Most errors in this 
book show up in the appendices, 

Programming with GFA BA5/C 3.0 is an 
extremely useful book. It clearly explains 
many of the aspects of this newest ver- 
sion of GFA BASIC that make it far easier 
to work with than earlier versions. It an- 
swers many of the questions raised by 
the (currently) poor manual and should 
be required reading for GFA program- 
mers. It is well-written, carefully edited 
and highly recommended. ■ 

Contributing Editor David Plotkin is a 
chemical engineer for Chevron U.S.A. and 
a long-time contributor to START. 


MichTron, 576 Soufh Tele- 
graph, Pontine, Ml 48053, 
(313) 334-5700. 

START The ST Monthly 83 



let the ST unleash your child's imagination in a rainbow 

of colors. ST Coloring Book is a delightful draw-and-paint 

program that will entertain and educate your children as 

they add colors to existing pictures or create and color 

their own. It also makes for a fun and easy way to teach 

them some of the ways you can use a computer. A color 

monitor is required. 

A coloring book that doesn't need crayons? See for yourself in the files 

Coloring books go a long way in aiding the intellectual development of your child. 
Whole new worlds are revealed as your son or daughter learns to distinguish various 
colors and shades, develop hand/eye coordination by learning to keep the colors 
within the lines and maybe even realize their own artistic talents. Besides, coloring 
books are fun! 

ST Coloring Book is a draw-and-paint program that increases in complexity as your 
child is able to take on greater challenges. For the preschooler, the ST Coloring Book 
program contains a series of line drawings that can be colored easily with the smooth 
mouse interface. Primary school-age children will quickly discover the programs many 
functions, such as its ability to add lines to an existing drawing or to adjust the colors. 
ST Coloring Book runs in low resolution only and accepts NEOchrome or DEGAS 
picture files in compressed or uncompressed format. It was written in GFA BASIC 

ST Coloring Book comes with five black and white screens for you to color in. 

by Richard Farrell 

84 March 1989 



These screens are in a separate archive 
file, SCREENS.ARC, on your START 
disk. If you have a double-sided disk 
drive, format a double-sided disk and 
and ARCX.TTP onto it. Un-ARC COLR- 
BOOK.ARC and SCREENS.ARC, follow- 
ing the Disk Instructions elsewhere in 
this issue If you have a single-sided 
drive, you must follow these special in- 
structions: Format a new disk and label 
it "ST Coloring Book'! Copy COLR- 
BOOK.ARC and ARCX.TTP onto this 
disk and un-ARC COLRBOOK.ARC. 
Now delete (drag to the trash can) 
COLRBOOK.ARC to free up some space 
on your Coloring Book disk. (Do not 
delete this file from your START disk or 
START backup disk.) Now copy 
SCREENS.ARC onto the Coloring Book 
disk, and un-ARC it as usual. When the 
five Pll files are on your coloring book 
disk, you may delete SCREENS.ARC; 
however, you will probably want to for- 
mat a data disk for your new, colored 

You can run ST Coloring Book with- 
out the Pll screens; however, 
MENUSCR and T1TLE.SCR must be in 
the same director)' as COLRBOOK.PRG. 

Running ST Coloring Book 

Set your monitor to low resolution and 
double-click on COLRBOOK.PRG. If 
SCREEN1.PU is not in the same direc- 
tory, you will start at the Menu screen. 
Otherwise SCREEN1.PIL "Dump 

Truck," will automatically load. At the 
top of the screen is your palette of 
colors. Move your cursor to any color 
and click. A white line will appear 
underneath the color you choose. Now 
move the cursor to where you want the 
color to be and click again - the truck 
looks better already. You can change 

from color to color using the mouse or 
by pressing the plus (+) or minus (-) 

At the top right-hand comer of the 
screen is a button icon. Move your cur- 
sor there and click to return to the 
Menu screen. At the Menu screen click 
on DRAW. When you return to the ► 

START The ST Monthly 85 

ST Coloring Book 

truck, you can put buildings and cars 
behind it or draw people in the cab. 

If you want to draw something from 
scratch, click on CLEAR at the Menu 
screen, then click on DRAW. This will 
take you to a blank screen where you're 
free to draw any image you can dream 
up. When you're satisfied with your art- 
work, return to the Menu screen and 
click on PAINT PICTURE. Now you can 
color your drawing. Also at the Menu 
screen, click on QUIT to return to the 
GEM Desktop. 

The Menu screen gives you access to 
10 functions that let you draw and color 
to your heart's content. In the accom- 
panying sidebar, I've compiled a button- 
by-button description of each of the 
[unctions for fast and easy reference 

The Color Palette 

From a base of three colors-red, green 

Color me ST! 
SCREEN1.PI1, "The 
Dump Truck," is the 
first of five DEGAS 
pictures ST Coloring 
Book automatically 
loads. At the Menu 
screen click on 
DRAW to add cars 
or buildings to the 
background. When 
you're finished 
drawing, click on 
Paint Picture and 
start coloring away. 

and blue -ST Coloring Book lets you 
adjust the palette at the top of the paint 
screen. Colors can be modified using 
the number keys. To see how this 
works, click on any color, then do the 
following to see how you affect that 


Reds: Press 7 to lighten; 9 to darken. 

Greens: Press 4 to lighten, 6 to 

Blues: Press 1 to lighten, 3 to darken. 

To remind yourself which keys 

ST Coloring Book, Button by Button 

The following list is a quick and easy 
reference to the many features found 
in ST Coloring Book's Main Menu 
screen. Press the Help key for a list 
ofkeyboard equivalents to these 


Click on DRAW at 
the Menu screen to 

sketch your own picture. At the blank 
work screen, hold the left mouse 
button down and draw whatever you 
like with the pencil cursor. When 
you finish your drawing, click on the 
button icon at the top right-hand 
comer of the screen. If you're ready 
to color your drawing, click on PAINT 
PICTURE at the Menu screen. 


If your drawing calls ' 
for straight lines, click 
on LINE at the Menu screen. You'll 
be returned to the work screen where 
your sketch is. To make a line, click 
at a spot on the image where you 

want the line to begin. Now, move 
the cursor to where you want the line 
to end. Notice how the lines stretch 
with the cursor Click again. You'll 
then see a nice straight line. To make 
another line, simply repeat this proc- 
ess. Note: if the line's starting point is 
not exactly where you want it, just 
click the right mouse button. The 
cursor will be freed up and no more 
lines will be drawn until you click 
the left button at the desired spot. 



If you make a mistake 
while you're drawing 
or painting a picture, return to the 
Menu screen and click on UNDO. 
The last thing you did will disappear 
and you're free to redo it. You can 
also access this function by pressing 
the Undo key. Press or click UNDO 
a second time to replace the last 

The UNDO function 
i only erases the last 
thing you did. If you want to redraw 
or repaint larger areas click on ERASE 
at the Menu Screen. At the work- 
screen hold the left mouse button 
down and with the flashing box begin 
erasing. Anything under this box will 
be erased when you left click the 
mouse The size of the eraser can be 
changed when you press any number 
from one to nine while the ERASE 
screen is displayed. If you erase too 
much, just press the Undo key and 
start over. 


Choose a color by clicking on any of 
the color boxes at the top of the 
screen. The current color being used 
is underlined in white. To fill an area 
with color, place the rip of the brush 
cursor at the desired spot and click. 
Note that lines that have been drawn 

86 March 1989 

lighten or darken which color, press the 
Help key. A list of keyboard commands 
will be displayed. Press the Escape key 
to return to the workscreen. 

To the right of the palette you'll see 
the letters R, G and B. Each letter has a 
corresponding number The current set- 
ting of each color is displayed here. The 
numbers will change as you adjust the 
various colors. To toggle between an ad- 
justed palette and the original one, press 
the letter G 

Changing the Automatic Picture Load 

You can stop the ST Coloring Book from 
loading pictures in two ways. One way 
is to simply rename SCREEN1.PI1 to 
SCREENX.PI1. Another way is to delete 
the SCREENS pictures entirely (be sure 
that you delete this from your backup 
copy disk and not the original). 

You can also create your own draw- 

cannot be filled, so if you accidentally 
click on a line, the bell will sound. 


<-- PAGE stands 
for "previous page" 
and PAGE - - > stands 
for "next page." Click 
on either of these to automatically 
load the next SCREEN picture or to 
return to the previous picture. 

Note that <- - PAGE and PAGE 
— > only load a picture file, they do 
not save your image in a buffer If 
you're happy with the colors you've 
given the picture you're working on, 
then click on SAVE before you go on 
to another picture. Otherwise you'll 
lose all your work. 


When you click on 

LOAD at the Menu 

screen, a file selector 

box will appear. Any 

picture you load must be in either 

NEOchrome or DEGAS .PCI or .PI1 


ings and have them load automatically 
to ST Coloring Book. The picture must 
be in either NEOchrome or DEGAS for- 
mat. Name the files in succession as 
SCREEN1, SCREEN2, etc., then save the 
files with either a .NEO or .Pll extender, 
depending on the paint program used. 


ST Coloring Book is an easy way to 
teach your child the fundamentals of 
color and coordination. It's also a way 
to introduce them to the complexities of 
a computer And-who knows?-maybe 
there's a Picasso lurking within your son 
or daughter just waiting for the oppor- 
tunity to show off. ■ 

Richard Farrell is a long-time Atari 
enthusiast who lives in Bloomington, 
Indiana. This is his first program pub- 
lished in START. 


To save a picture, click on SAVE at 
the Menu screen. A file selector box 
will appear Give the file an appro- 
priate name and save the picture 
with either a .NEO or .PU extender. 
If you forget to add an extender the 
program automatically saves your 
picture as DEGAS .PU file. 


If you aren't happy at 
all with the picture 

you drew, at the Menu screen click 
on CLEAR. An alert box will ask if 
you're sure you want to do that. Click 
on yes to clear the work screen, click 
on no to return to the Menu screen. 
If you click yes, your workscreen will 
be clear and you can sketch out a 
new picture Press the Undo key to 
restore the image 


At the Menu screen, 
click on QUIT to 

return to the GEM Desktop. 



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START The ST Monthly 87 

Software Rental 

Does software rental 
encourage piracy? That's 
the position the Software 
Publishers Association 
took with Congress last 
fall. This article was orig- 
inally published in the 
September 5, 1988 issue of 
Computer Systems News, a 
computer trade paper; 
we're reprinting it for you 
because of the long-term 
effects the software rental 
battle could have on the 
ST community. 

by Stacey Peterson 

The software industry, which prides it- 
self on keeping government out of its 
business, is knocking on lawmakers' 
doors asking for protection against what 
they call a looming threat from software 

"The development of a large-scale 
rental business would jeopardize the 
future of companies such as WordPer- 
fect," said WordPerfect Corp.'s president 
Alan Ashton at recent U.S. Senate hear- 
ings held in Provo, Utah. 

Ashton and several other software 
company representatives rallied round 
the Computer Software Rental Amend- 
ments Act of 1988, which would ban 
software rental without authorization 
from the copyright holder. The Senate 
Judiciary Subcommittee on Patents, 
Copyrights and Trademarks is consider- 
ing S2727 as an amendment to the U.S. 
Copyright Act. 

The argument against software rental 
operations is that they "are nothing 
more than invitations to rent the prod- 
uct, make a copy and then return the 
disk for someone else to do the same," 
according to testimony of Heidi Roizen, 
president of software developer 
T/Maker Co. and the Software Pub- 
lishers Association. 

And while the same can be said 
about video rentals and even books 
borrowed from libraries, the software 
folks insist their case is different. They 
liken it to the sound-recording industry, 
which successfully lobbied for its own 
ban on rentals in 1984, using the argu- 
ment that technology had reached a 

stage that allowed people to make per- 
fect copies in their homes. 

The situation for software, however, 
is even more serious, Ashton argued. 
Compact disks cost only $16.95 and 
take about an hour to copy, but software 
packages have prices of several hundred 
dollars or more and can be copied in 

"The incentive to rent software for 
the purpose of avoiding purchase of a 
copy is much greater than in the case of 
records," Ashton insisted. 

The prices software companies 
charge, he added, reflect the "costs of 
creation " A strong rental market would 
sap funds the industry needs to reinvest 
in improving products and in research 
and development. 

In addition to time and cost factors, 
AshtonTate Corp. deputy general coun- 
sel Thomas Chan maintained that there 
is no good reason for rental. "No one 
really rents software to perform some 
data processing and then to return the 
original software without making a 
copy. To do so would be like creating a 
bunch of hies, locking them up and 
throwing the key away." 

Chan, who spoke for ADAPSO at the 
hearing, stressed that some software 
rental operations are, in fact, "reincar- 
nated" software pirates. They used to 
sell illegal copies of software programs 
but have had to find other entrepreneu- 
rial outlets as the government makes 
pirating more difficult. 

"Unless I'm a really stupid pirate, 
why would I make copies when I can 

rent," Chan recently said in an 

In his testimony, Chan cited a Cana- 
dian company, Crazy Irving, as "one of 
the most notorious pirates" that was 
prosecuted for software theft and fraud 
earlier this year. Within 24 hours, Chan 
said, Crazy Irving reopened its door, 
"this time renting software and openly 
challenging the software industry and 
government to action." 

Right now, software companies de- 
pend on their end user license agree- 
ments, which prohibit rental, to protect 
them from these operations. But no one 
has tested the enforceability of these 
agreements, Chan said. 

There is some doubt that "you can 
do by a contract what the Copyright Act 
does not specifically let you do," he 
added. If the contract itself does not 
hold up in court, the companies are left 
having to prove that a rental company 
has contributed to infringement. 

The software companies, while in- 
sisting that rental is obviously "con- 
tributory infringement," find that chang- 
ing the copyright law is the easier way out. 

But then again, at this point it's only 
a one-sided argument, since no rental 
companies were called to testify at the 
Senate hearings. ■ 

Copyright 1988 by CMP Publications, Inc., 
600 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 
11030. Reprinted with permission from 
Computer Systems News. 




c orripi 

c oco? 


Stacey Peterson is the Senior Editor of 
Computer Systems News. 

START The ST Monthly 89 








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Planes, Thrones and 

There's only one word to describe this 
issue's games: eclectic. For instance, Su- 
perstar Ice Hockey takes you to a fun- 
filled night at the fights-uh, we mean 
ice hockey. Then Sinbad and the 
Throne of the Falcon puts you in the 
shoes of one of the greatest adventurers 
of all time And, finally, SkyChase has 
you battle it out with the fastest 
and most powerful attack jets ever 


reviewed by Rick Teverbaugh 

Superstar Ice Hockey goes far beyond 
what any other computer hockey game 
has ever attempted. But perhaps in try- 
ing to cover too much ground, the crea- 
tors forgot to add the speed and passion 
that make this sport one so exciting to 
watch -and so taxing to play. 

Gamers assume a triple role. First, as 
the general manager, you wheel and deal 
to obtain the best players possible Then 
you're the coach, deciding who plays on 
a line, when the line changes occur and 
what strategies will be used on the ice 
Finally you get to put on the gloves and 
pads, pick up a stick and go get em. 
That's where the troubles begin. 

With impressive 
graphics, Superstar 
Ice Hockey goes far 
beyond what any 
other computer 
hockey game has 
ever attempted. 

G-Rafed Gameplay 

Ice hockey is a game of speed, finesse, 
power and brutality. All of these ele- 
ments show up in Superstar Ice 
Hockey— except brutality. Once the 
game moves to the ice, you're left with 
a G-rated version of a sport that is 
mostly R- rated (for "rough"), or at least 
PG-13. When one player checks another 
or trips him, all you get is a player sit- 
ting on his posterior and spinning on 
the ice. 

Not only is that less than satisfying, 
but the spinning lasts too long. Time is 

simulated so it won't take 20 minutes to 
play a 20-minute period. This compres- 
sion of time makes the spinning players 
even worse. One player spun in one 
place for nearly 30 seconds. 

Game control is certainly more excit- 
ing when you leave the goal-keeping to 
the computer and go to control a skater. 
This gives you more to do during a 
game, but there's another reason. 5ince 
the game is from a side-press-box point 
of view, it's difficult to get a good per- 
spective for moving the goalie to protect 
the goal, Most of the time the computer ► 

START The ST Monthly 91 

For the Fun of It 

does a better job, at least on the first 
shot. If there's a rebound, you'd better 
be on the spot with a defenseman be- 
cause the goalie will almost never stop a 
good second shot. 

The Preseason and Gameplay 

Despite the on-ice problems, Superstar 
Ice Hockey has enough long-range play- 
ing options to keep you interested. For 
instance, not only will the program keep 
track of an entire season's worth of 
games leading into the playoffs, it will 
also track as many as nine seasons. 

Preseason improvements are made to 
the team in three ways. You can take the 
team to training camp, trade players 
with other teams or recruit players from 
the minor leagues. When the season 
gets underway, the game setup screen is 
where you make choices for the up- 
coming period and the player you will 
control with your joystick. In two-player 
games, two joysticks are used. 

Once the game begins you can select 
from one of three offensive and defen- 
sive lines-pre-arranged sets of three 
offensive players or two defensive 
skaters. Then you can set the strategies. 
On offense your choices are Attack, 
Normal or Setup. Defense also has three 
choices. Forecheck is an aggressive, at- 
tacking style that often becomes neces- 
sary when your team is behind. Other 
choices are Normal and Protect, which 
is good for maintaining hold of a lead. 

It Takes Time 

It will take a while to catch on to the 
method for shooting, passing or faking 
shots. It will also take some time to 
learn that skating too hard and too fast 
will almost always result in skating past 
your intended target. Putting on the 
brakes isn't easy here. 

Expect to take some lumps in your 
first few games. If the score gets too 
high, even the referee may find your in- 
eptness humorous. But he'll still hit you 
with penalties for unnecessary rough- 
ness, offsides or Icing. 

Superstar Ice Hockey is a good game; 
it's just not everything an exciting sport 
like this deserves. 


reviewed by David Plotkin 

The aging Caliph has been mysteriously 
turned into a falcon before he can name 
his successor from among three 
candidates-Good Prince Haroun, 
Prince Jamoul (The Butcher) and the 
Black Prince The Caliph's daughter, 
Princess Sylphani, summons famed ad- 
venturer Sinbad the Sailor to help. As 
Sinbad, your goal is to discover the 
secret of turning the Caliph back into 
human form. To do this you must lead 
the Caliph's armies past the Black 
Prince's forces. 

Sinbad and the Throne of the 
Falcon is another Cinemaware com- 

tantto keep track of the time- the 
Caliph will remain a falcon forever if 
you take too long.) and a crystal that 
you use to command the Caliph's ar- 
mies. You can explore the surrounding 
area on foot with a party of men or sail 
to other ports with your ship. 

If you travel on foot you'll meet 
characters you can converse with. Chief 
among these are the gypsy, the shaman 
and a seductress (now that's an interest- 
ing encounter!). When these characters 
speak to you, you're given a number 
of responses to choose from. The cor- 
rect response may win you gifts or valu- 
able information. However, angering 
the other party can have serious 

Moving on land is simply a matter of 
clicking on one of the road signs to get 
to your destination. Remember that 
time passes while you're traveling. 
Pirates may attack your ship from time 

Sinbad and the 
Throne of the 
Falcan was another 
Cinemaware game 
designed to be 
reminiscent of the 
old movies. 

puter game designed to be reminiscent 
of old movies. Like their earlier offer- 
ings, sometimes it works and some- 
times it doesn't. 


You begin at the Caliph's palace. You 
have a ship, a loyal crew, a map of the 
surroundings, an hourglass (It's impor- 

to time, killing members of your crew. 
Be sure to leave a good-sized defending 
party on board when you go exploring. 
You will also want to "recruit" new crew 
members in the larger cities. 

Periodically, you must use the crystal 
to review the situation around the 
Caliph's palace. Inevitably, you will find 
armies of the Black Prince's converging 

92 March 19 

on the palace and you must order the 
Caliph's men to attack. The battlefield is 
divided into hexagonal shapes, with 
each army occupying one hexagon. 
When opposing armies occupy the 
same square, they fight. You must move 
reinforcements to areas where the fight 
is going badly as well as move weak- 
ened armies back to supply depots. It's 
possible to completely defeat the armies 
of the Black Prince and not need 
to worry about this part of the game 

Sea travel means that you must locate 
your ship and set sail for the destina- 
tion you selected from your logbook. 
Once you reach that destination, you 
can choose a landing party and go 
ashore, at which point you move once 
again into the "land exploration" por- 
tion of the game. 

Arcade Sequences 

As with earlier Cinemaware games, Sin- 
bad and the Throne of the Falcon has a 
number of arcade sequences. Sinbad 
may need to guide his ship through 
rocky shoals (picking up shipwreck 
survivors to add to his crew). Hitting a 
rock ends the game, though, so it's best 
not to take too many chances. You may 
also have to battle it out using your 
sword. Opponents can include the 
Black Prince, Prince Jamoul (The 
Butcher), a skeleton and a statue that 
comes to life. 

If there aren't enough members in 
the landing party to defend them, Good 
Prince Haroun or Princess Sylphani 
may be carried off. Sinbad may also 
find himself in an underground cavern, 
from which you must help him run, 
jump and climb in a sort of rudimen- 
tary Donkey Kong game. There is also a 
sequence where you try to shoot down 
a Pteranoxos, a sort of pterodactyl with 
feathers. The arcade sequence anima- 
tion tends to be jerky and joystick re- 
sponse is not always what it should be, 
especially in the sword fights. 

The graphics are quite good, in keep- 

SkyChase puts you 
In the cockpits of 
some of the hottest 
U.S. and Russian 
military attack [efs. 

ing with other Cinemaware products. 
Full-screen renditions of scenes lend a 
movie-like air to the game The encoun- 
ter with the seductress is especially 
provocative (if rated PG). If you are 
playing on a 520ST, frequent disk ac- 
cess and disk switching is required (the 

As Sinbad, you must 

find out how to 

change the Caliph 

back to a human. 

game comes on three disks). But if you 
have one megabyte or more of internal 
RAM, all three disks can be loaded into 
memory and the game proceeds much 
faster A hard disk is not supported. 
Sound is non-existent except for a few 
squeaks and tinkles. 

Only the joystick is used, although 
the mouse pointer would be much eas- 
ier and more efficient. Confusingly, the 
documentation is written for the Amiga, 
although there is a card of changes for 
the ST version. But what's really incredi- 

ble is that there is no Save Game feature 
Sinbad is a big game, with lots of terri- 
tory to cover and many ways to die. Yet 
you must start over from the beginning 
every single time. 

Try Before You Buy 

If you liked earlier Cinemaware offer- 
ings, you'll like Sinbad and the Throne 
of the Falcon, particularly with its stun- 
ning graphics arcade sequences. But in 
my opinion, it lacks depth and fails to 
involve the player I suggest that you try 
the game before you buy it. 


reviewed by Scot Tumlin 

SkyChase, from Broderbund, is a jet 
simulator that combines tactical maneu- 
vers with fast combat action. It's a game 
that puts you in the cockpits of some of 
the hottest US. and Russian military at- 
tack jets. Your mission is to seek out 
and destroy enemy aircraft-before they 
destroy you. 

Simulation Parameters: 
Choosing Your Weapons 

Once the game starts, you're presented 
with a series of menus, each of which 
contains options that alter the simula- 
tion's parameters. The first menu selects 
the number of players. You can play ► 

START The ST Monthly 93 

For the Fun of It 

against the computer or a friend. There 
is no keyboard option, so joysticks 
are required. 

Each player can then select the type 
of jet he or she wants to fly. The follow- 
ing jets are available: the Navy F-18 and 
F-14, the Air Force F-15 and F-16, the 
Russian MiG 27 and MiG 31 -and as a 
special bonus, a top-secret Paper Plane 
At this time, players also select the 
amount of fuel and gun ammunition 
and number of missiles for their jets. 

Bullet-hit threshold determines the 
size of the area within which you can 
score a hit with your guns. The missile- 
lock threshold determines the spatial 
interval within which your missiles will 
acquire a target. The G-force effect de- 
termines the amount of G-forces the 
player can withstand before blackout. 
A grid-select option determines the size 
of the grid The smaller the grid, the 
fewer lines there are to update (and 
thus game speed increases). When you 
play against the computer, the game au- 
tomatically sets yout opponent's 
difficulty level. 

Once the parameters are set the play 
screen is displayed. This screen shows 
two windows, yours and your oppo- 
nent's. Flight instrumentation is dis- 
played below each players window. Dig- 
ital counters display speed, score 
missile and gun rounds remaining and 
current altitude. Colored bars display 
fuel and thrust levels. A radar is 
displayed at the bottom center of 
the screen. 

Arr-to-Air Combat 

The dogfight begins with both jets ex- 
ecuting a flyby. Each jet starts from one 
end of the grid and passes the other jet. 
The players' controls are disengaged un- 
til the jets pass a certain distance. At 
this point the controls are engaged and 
combat begins! 

As in other flight simulators, pushing 
the joystick forward causes your jet to 
dive. Pulling back on the stick causes 
your jet to climb. Left and right move- 

ments cause the jet to bank and turn 
or roll. 

The goal in SkyChase is to shoot 
down your opponent's jet. Maneuvering 
behind the enemy aircraft is best way to 
achieve this goal. From this location you 
can fire at him, but he can't fire at you. 

A crosshair marker is displayed at 
the center of your cockpit window. For 
a gun-kill, maneuver your jet until your 
crosshairs are centered on your oppo- 
nent. Press the trigger for a quick burst 

If you have a need 
for speed, SkyChase 
is one of the best jet 

combat simulators 

of machine-gun fire. Gravity and 
momentum do affect the direction of 
your rounds. At times you will have to 
"lead" your gunfire to score a kill. A 
missile-kill is slightly different. When 
you're in range, a target-designator box 
will appear over your opponent's jet. A 
line will connect between the designa- 
tor box and your crosshair. Once the 
missile has a lock, you'll hear a high- 
pitched whine and see a green light ap- 
pear on your screen. Double-press the 
trigger to launch the missile. A small dot 
will race toward your opponent's jet and 
on his screen a red light will flash, in- 
dicating a missile has locked onto his 
jet. Once a player's jet is destroyed, the 
flyby sequence starts over. 

Combat Performance 

SkyChase is simple and to the point. 
There are no fancy 3D environments to 
update, just a grid. During combat, there 

is no time to look at pretty scenery. Ac- 
cessing the weapons is very easy: one 
trigger press for guns, two for missiles. 
The rich selection of parameters gives 
total control to the players, thus allow- 
ing advanced players to go head-to-head 
against beginners in a fair scenario. 

SkyChase does have a few bad 
points. First, if an opponent's missile 
acquires a lock, it's goodbye amigos! A 
quick move may work, but most of the 
time it doesn't. Military jets have 
defenses against enemy missiles. Sky- 
Chase should, too. 

All things considered, SkyChase is 
one of the best jet combat simulators 
available. It's the best for quick screen 
updating and smooth 3D animation. 
If you have the need for speed, buy a 
copy of SkyChase. It'll blow your 
socks off! ■ 

Rick Teverbaugh is a sportswriter and 
veteran game reviewer for several com- 
puter magazines. David Plotkin is a 
chemical engineer for Chevron U.S.A. 
and a Contributing Editor for START 
Scot Tumlin is Direct Mail Sales and 
Support Super-visor for Antic Software. 


Superstar Ice Hockey, 

$49.95. Mindscope Inc., 
3444 Dundee Rood, North- 
brook, IL 60062, (312) 

Sinbad and the Throne 
of the Falcon, $49.95. 

Gnemaware Corp., 4165 
Thousand Oaks Boulevard, 
Westlake Village, CA 91 362, 

SkyChase, $39 95 

Broderbund (Maxis), 17 Paul 
Drive, San Rafael, CA 
94903, (415) 492-3500. 



Every issue, START features great 
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Advertising Deadlines for the May 1989 Issue 

Insertions: January 30 

Ad Copy Due: February 6 

On Sale: April 1, 1989 

96 March 1989 


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